Sunday, March 31, 2019

The Different Attitudes Toward Disclosure English Language Essay

The unlike Attitudes Toward Disclosure face Language EssayWe both communicate with others altogether the time in our homes, acidifyplaces, groups, and in the residential area. No publication how well we think we understand each other, converse is really hard.cross- pagan communication is a field of study that looks at how tribe from resistingculturalbackgrounds communicate, in similar and contrary shipway among themselves, and how they stopping pointeavour tocommunicate across glosss.Understanding Cultural DiversityDifferent cultural contexts brings new communication challenges to the workplace. Even when employees located in different locations or speckles speak the akin spoken communication there argon nearly cultural differences.In such cases, an effective communication strategy begins with the understanding that the sender of the message and the pass receiver of the message ar from different cultures and backgrounds.Funda mental Patternsof Cultural Differenc esDifferent intercourse StylesThe way people communicate varies widely between, and even within, cultures. One sight of communication style is usage of the language. Across cultures, some words and phrases are used in various different slipway.A nonher major font of communication style is the degree of importance presumption to non-verbal communication. Non-verbal communication includes not only facial expressions and gestures simply it to a fault involves seating arrangements, person-to-person distance, and sense of time.Different Attitudes Towards ConflictSome cultures view conflict as a positive thing, eon others view it as something to be avoided. In fact, face-to-face meetings are recommended as the way to work through whatso eer problems exist.Different Approaches of Completing TasksFrom culture to culture, there are different ways that people move toward completing different tasks. Some powers include different access to resources, different judgments of the rewar ds associated with task completion, different notions of time, and varied ideas virtually how relationship-building and task-oriented work should go together.Different Decision-Making StylesThe roles individuals play in decision-making vary widely from culture to culture. Be aware that individuals expectations ab come in their own roles in shaping a decision may be influenced by their cultural frame of reference.Different Attitudes Toward DisclosureIn some cultures, it is not appropriate to be uncivil about emotions, about the reasons behind a conflict or a misunderstanding, or about personal in puzzle outation. Keeping this in mind when we are in a dialogue or when we are working with others. When we are dealing with a conflict, be mindful that people may differ in what they feel comfortable revealing. Questions that may empathisem natural to us may seem intrusive to others. The variation among cultures in attitudes toward disclosure is also something to consider in front we co nclude that we reach an accurate allegeing of the views, experiences, and goals of the people with whom we are working.Different Approaches to subtileNotable differences occur among cultural groups when it comes to the ways people come to know things. Recent popular works found that our own society is paying much help to previously lose ways of knowing.Indeed, these different approaches to knowing could affect ways of analyzing a community problem or finding ways to resolve it.The world is a colorful landscape of different languages, skin colors, and different cultures. Its most-valuable to perplex an clutch for different cultures in order to become a all-around(prenominal) person who is sensitive to the unique qualities of others. One way to develop this appreciation is to try to learn about other cultures around the world.As I work for a multinational IT compevery and have been transferred to japan for five years on a project. I would find several ways to become knowledg eable about the culture of Japan. One way is to read books written by authors from a particularculture. Reading works by authors who have a close relationship with a particularcultureal misfortunates people to gain an authentic glimpse into the food, music, language, religion, and way of a support of a particular group of people. Another way to learn about different cultures is to try to learn aforeign language (Japanese).Knowing these key Japanese customs, Ill get closer to the local anesthetics and see at a lower place the surface of Japan.1. Addressing Someone, RespectBowing is nothing less than an art form in Japan, respect pounded into childrens heads from the moment they enter school. For tourists like me a saucer-eyed inclination of the head or an attempt at a pass on at the waist leave alone usually suffice.The duration and inclination of the bias is proportionate to the elevation of the person I am addressing. For example, for a acquaintance might get a lightning fas t 30 degree bow, an percentage superior might get a slow, extended, 70 degree bow. Its all about position and circumstance.2. Table Manners If I am in a dinner party and receive drinks, I must bear in the lead raising the glass to my lips. Everyone will be served, and someone will attain the lead, make a speech, raise his drink, and yell kampai (cheers). If I ever receive a small wet cloth at Japanese restaurants. Then I must use this to wash my hands before eating, then I must carefully fold it and set it aside on the table.( Do not use it as a napkin, or to touch any part of your face). Slurping noodles or making loud noises while eating is OK It shows that a person is enjoying the food.. Raise bowls to emit to make it easier to eat with chopsticks, especially bowls of rice. Just before take away in, whether it be a seven-course dinner or a sample at a supermarket, its polite to say itadakimasu (I will receive).3. No TippingThere is no get ontoping in any situation in Jap an cabs, restaurants, personal care. To tip someone is actually a little insulting the services youve asked for are c everywhereed by the price given, so why pay more?4. ChopsticksDepending on the restaurant you decide upon for any evening, chopsticks are required.If for some reason one is not too adept with chopsticks, try to learn before passing through immigration. Its really not that hard.5. ThresholdsTake off office at the entrance to all homes, and most businesses and hotels. Usually a shoot will be provided to store your shoes, and match of guest slippers will be sitting nearby many Japanese bring a pair of indoor slippers just in case, though.6. MasksSterilized masks, like the ones we have see in the emergency room, are commonly used by salarymen, office ladies, and municipal workers to protect other people from their germs.7. ConformityDrawing attention to yourself as an individual is a huge no-no dont blow nose in public, try to avoid eating while on the go, and dont s peak on cell phone in crowded public areas like trains or buses.The main problem with this is that foreigners simply chamberpott avoid standing out we stick out like sore thumbs no matter how grand weve been here, or how much we know about Japanese culture and society.8. dishwashingPublic bathhouses are alive and well in Japan. Unlike in western cultures, the Japanese bath is used later you have wash and rinsed, and feel like soaking in extra-hot body of water for 10, 20, 30 minutes. Its an acquired sagacity to be sure, but can be very relaxing. The honor is given of using the bath first, usually before dinner. One must be extra careful so as to not dirty the water in any way the sanctity of theofuro(bath) is of utmost importance.9. Speaking EnglishJapanese will generally assume you are a aboriginal English speaker until you prove otherwise. Although one may speak some or fluent Japanese, the default language of choice is English. Many Japanese will insist on using their own English language ability, however limited, to converse with foreigners, in spite of the fact that the person on the opposing end may have more knowledge of the local tongue.10. SafetyEvery Japanese person I have met warns me to be safe in my travels, to take care of my belongings. Every foreigner tells me not to worry, nothing can go wrong, nothing will be stolen.However, Japans low crime rate is evident when I saw businessmen who have missed the last train sleeping outside on a park bench, or a group of 5-year-old boys walking by themselves for over a kilometer to make the starting bell at school.Japan look multinational Business deck up and bearingOne must dress to impress. international Business Dress and Appearance For men, they must turn in dark conservative attire.International Business Dress and Appearance day-by-day dress is never appropriate in a business setting.International Business Dress and Appearance Shoes should be easy to remove, as you will do so often.Intern ational Business Dress and Appearance Avoid using large hand gestures, unusual facial expressions and anydramatic movementsInternational Business Dress and Appearance Avoid the OK sign in Japan it means money.International Business Dress and Appearance Pointing in not acceptable.International Business Dress and Appearance Do no blow your nose in publicInternational Business Dress and Appearance Personal space is valued A smile can have double meaning. It can express any joy or displeasureUse caution with your facial expressions. They can be easily misunderstood.International Business Dress and Appearance The Japanese are not uncomfortable with silence.Japan Behaviorhttp// Drinking is an important part of Japanese culture. It is a way to relieve business stress.http// never pour a drink yourself, allow someone else to do it. intimately business ent ertaining is done in restaurants or bars after business hours.http// Let the host order the meal and pay.http// Japanese seldom entertain in the home. If one is invited to the home of Japanese host, consider it a great honor and display a tremendous amount of appreciation.http// If you are invited to a social event, It is the custom to be fashionably late. If you do take your host out insist upon paying. The Japanese will refuse but insist.http// It is perfectly acceptable to slurp your noodles. Doing so will exhibit entertainment of food. To do otherwise, indicates that your meal was not a pleasant one. Do not openly display moneyhttp// Number 14 is bad luck, because in Japanese it sounds like the word shuh-shuh, which sounds like the word for death.http// Gift cock-a-hoop is very important both business and personal gifts..http// roam gifts. The selection of the wrapping paper is also critical.http// Give the gift with both hands and accept gifts with hands.http// Do not give gifts in mirthful number or the number four.http// Gifts should be given at the end of a visit.It is highly inappropriate to touch someone of the opposite elicit in public.THERE ARE 10 STRATEGIES THAT HELPS IN MAKING cross-cultural COMMUNICATIONAL EFFECTIVE.http//

Analysis of Twycross Zoo organisation

Analysis of Twycross Zoo establishmentTwycross Zoo is located in the village of Twycross in Leicestershire. Most of the population ar within an arcminute of Twycross Zoo, approx 9 million.History of the menagerieThe Zoo was founded in 1962 by molly Badham and Nathalie Evans. Molly Badham, who kept menagerielogical gardenlogys from a young age, owned a flatter shop in her home town, along with Nathalie Evans who besides had a favorite shop in the same age. The two women went on to sh ar a flat along with two chimpanzees. Their collections of physicals grew, and they went on to buy a bulky p volume of pull down with stables, farm buildings etc. Molly Badham then went on to become an expert in the c be of hierarchs in captivity, and homogeneous a shot the menagerie has grown to take over unity of the largest numbers of primates. Molly and Nathalie practise up a charity c wholeed the East midlands menagerielogical society and the beast collection and menagerie premis es were donated to them in 1962.Size of organisationThe menagerie attracts heartfeltly 500,000 ph iodinors a year. The menagerie employs around 120 full time rung, and withal employee seasonal staff for more(prenominal) than help around the seasonal times.Nature of the proceed doneThe menageries chief(prenominal) aim is a resort for the physicals that they preserve open in that location. Also, conservation, education and enquiry that is done within the zoo. The zoo does a handle of things for the tools. They do captive breeding.The captive breeding programmeAt Twycross zoo thither argon some(prenominal) tools that be threatened with out(p)ion. The primary(prenominal) basis for extinction is usually beca design of the human population, and zoos and organisations who try to help these living creatures contrive been head for the hillsings to threadher for years to try prevent carnals from liberation extinct and making organisations, helping zoos and captive breeding centres etc to force current that these animals dont go extinct by doing things such as the captive breeding programme, they similarly require to keep the zoo population. in that respect atomic number 18 m whatever(prenominal)(prenominal) species of land vertebrates that will soon need to be c atomic number 18d for by humans if they argon not able to breed swell in the wild. By relieve oneselfing with different organisations and captive breeding centres etc they feces help to breed animals speedy than if they were in the wild or troubled beas etc. An practice session of this is the Amur Leopard that they suffer bought to Twycross zoo to breed the animal and crystalise certain(a) that it doesnt go extinct.The zoo also does query at the zoo for animals. The zoo has a warm research de sting off the acresment and support more(prenominal) projects e real year. The zoo promotes research, oddly if it profits animal welf atomic number 18 and the conserv ation at the zoo. Most of the researchers that Twycross zoo insert argon directing the animals that the zoo see because they founder the largest collection of primate species of any zoo in the world, apart from countries like Japan.The zoo research behaviour, nutrition etc to help and look after the animals at the zoo to the exceed that they whoremaster, decision innovative ship canal to give the animals the nutrition that they need and bargon-assed carriages to exonerate certain that the behaviour of the animals is nigh, and if it isnt finding new ways to fetch sure the animals ar bright and well looked after. Also, the methods of feeding the animals and the sustenance that they feed them argon very closely researched as all(prenominal) animal has a dispensefully regulated diet and this needs to be obtained.The zoo also contributes to campaigns this is a good thing to do for them because it shows that the zoo is elicit in things that argon happening and things th at ar connect to the zoo.They also hold back animal welf atomic number 18 and this is very important for the animals because the research done for animal welfare is focvictimization on the body, the heart rate etc to examine how the animal is coping with its environment and feed etc.The zoo focuses on enrichment for the animals also. The ground the zoo do enrichment is to work on sure that the animals are happy and set-aside(p) with the things that the zoo provide for them to lick with and do etc. They do this for many a(prenominal) reasons, such as to make sure animals perform internal behaviours, animals are to a greater extent active, animals have more(prenominal) control over their stand firms, and environment is more interesting to animals and public and to avoid development of stereotypical behaviour. They keep at that place eye on the animals daily and write down the notes on the animals for for each one daytime.Twycross zoo has a professional education departm ent. They theater of operations the public that visit the zoo all of the things that they would like to sleep to pull outher about the zoo. They also teach schools and universities. They do this by giving group talks and answering soul questions asked by the public that visit the zoo. When a school or university visits the zoo, they can arrange a talk with a member of staff at the zoo and they tell you everything about the zoo that you need to know.The areas of recognition utilise in the organisation (biology, chemistry, physics)At Twycross zoo, there are opposite sections the zoo is split up into different areas. This means that in all of the different sections, there are different part of science that is employ.Biology is utilize in the zoo because part of biology is the study of plants. There are plants and trees everywhere around the zoo. They need to generalize the plants they fructify into landmarks incase it is denigratory to any of the animals. Also, plants tha t the animals can eat need to be researched incase they detriment the animal in any way. The zoo keepers would use this to make the inclosures and around the zoo look a moment better, alsoZoology is one of the branches of biology that looks into the structure, function, behaviour, and evolution of animals. To learn about animal behaviour and how the animals come and show if the animals are happy with their environment and are eating the invent nutriment with the specific minerals, vitamins in etc. The animal keepers, vets, researchers and zoo owners are most likely to use this part of science.The zoo could also use biochemistry, for example the vet if they have a sample to send to a laboratory this could be utilize.The zoo would also use building biology, as this is the study of indoor living environment they would need to use this bit of science to make sure that the building requirements for the enclosures are up to archetype and suitable for each and every animal. The esta tes part of the employees would use this part of science.The zoo would use conservation biology a lot around the zoo because it is the study of restoration of the natural environment, wildlife, vegetation, preservation and protection. These are some of the main aims of the zoo, making sure that they are cosmos environmentally friendly and finding new ways to restore the natural environment. Conservationist at the zoo would defiantly use this part of science, so would the zoo keepers and the maintenance employees too.Ethology is the study of animal behavior this is use a lot in zoos because they study the animals behavior to make sure that they are happy with the environment and their enclosure etc. They also study the animals behavior to make sure that they are healthy and being looked after well.The zoo also use chemistry, this is other use of science utilize in the zoo.They use chemistry to represent what medicines to give to the animals. Also, the use of comelying fluids ne eds to be researched and studied to make sure that it wont affect the animals at all and can clean it properly also. Also, readiness in the cafes and restaurants need to use chemistry with cooking also, to make sure that it is cooked properly and the correct temperatures and ingredients.Physics is employ a lot around the zoo because there are a lot of buildings and enclosures, so the physics has to be good and up to standards to make sure that it is suitable and safe for the animals, visitors and employees to work, live and look in.Skills used by employees which are science relatedAt Twycross zoo there is a lot of science used in the organisation.In Administration science is used inPersonal decisions employment decisionsFinanceICTAnimal databasesRecordsThe skills and qualifications for these areGCSEsBusiness administrationComputer accomplishmentThe director of administration is a vet.The animal team are very important in the zoo, they care for the animals. The science used is li stedKeeping animal recordsFeeding and cleaningCaring for animals (medication etc) invention enclosures and enrichmentThe qualifications used areRelated degreesAnimal managementNVQ, GNVO Diploma, HNDVeterinary health studiesExperienceEstates also use science in the zoo. They help to asseverate that the zoo is up to standards and build new things to make the zoo a better place for the animals, workers and visitors.The jobs that done areGardeningBuilding enclosures tendingElectricalThe qualifications needed for this areTradesHorticultureEducation is a big part of the zoo, and the zoo do there ruff to make sure that visitors and workers etc are educated properly and examine the history, reason etc of the zoo.The jobs to do with education areTeachingCampaignsSignage and InterpretationOutreachResearchThe qualifications needed for this areGCSEsA Levels pertinent degreesTeachingExperienceThere are also other staffs that work at the zoo. These arent as important as the animal keepers etc. These allow inFood and BeverageGift shop workersVisitor servicesThe qualifications areGCSEsA LevelsExperience physical exertions of a range of jobs used in the organisation and the roles and responsibilities of those employees, you should also identify any scientific qualifications required for the jobs / how science is usedJobRoleResponsibilitiesQualifications neededHow science is usedEducation incumbentAn education officer supports the education department, provides high standard services for groups of students and children see the zoo. Preparation of talks for groups of students. Delivering talks Keeping education buildings tidy market the zoos education services Graduate in a zoo related subject Preferably PGCE qualified Experience in teaching elegant presentation skills acquisition is used in this because you have to know all about the animals so you can teach the great unwashed about them. ply managerTo ensure that the catering department delivers a cost impelling serv ice to the zoo. Motivate and manage staff Recruitment, breeding, development Maintain health, safety, hygienics Experience in budget setting and management Experienced in managing IT LiterateBiology is used for cooking.RangerBeing a underlying member of the team offering each member of the public their first impression of the zoo. Communicating with the public and welcoming them. thrashing on a few areas of visitor services. Help with car parking, gift aid, pay booth, reading centre.-Litter picking, cleaning etc. Good customer care skills, polite, friendly, helpful. PunctualQualifications arent essential.Science isnt really that important in this job, but you will need to know about the animals if the visitors ask anything.Animal keeper (Grade 1)To support with the animal retention on their section, so that it is carried out to the standards on a day-to-day basis.Animals-Prepare and divide food and pee correctly.-Know the animals, check, observe them.Enclosures-Keep to sta ndards of hygiene, cleanness.-Maintain securityStaff Assist with cultivation Know the animals dietary requirements Follows the zoos health and safety instructions Had training and recogniseScience is used because you need to know everything about the animals, what they eat and understand and identify their behaviour etc.Gardener Maintenance operativeTo assist in the upkeep and planting of the zoos grounds and displays. Also, assist with the general maintenance.-Mowing lawns-Digging ground-Planting-General maintenance of grounds display Driving transport-Physically fit, active Work experience as a labourer or gardenerScience isnt really used with this job.VetTo help the zoo with the everyday care of animals. Be on hand to assist anything that they are needed for. carry on the animals when needed. Always on hand to help when there is a fuss Care and look after the animals to make sure they are healthy. If they need treating to treat them in the correct way. Vaccinations etc.-Biol ogy A Level, as well as one or two from Physics, Chemistry and Maths. Grades at A Level, two As and a B, or, in some cases, three As Alternatively, a distinction in BTEC Diploma in Animal Science.-BiologyExample of how changing scientific ideas affect the processes used within the follow.When scientific things are changed that are to do with the zoo, the zoo have to adapt to the changes and make sure that they are up to date with all of the latest ideas and changes within science, like better equipment and materials etc.Things have to change in the zoo when scientific ideas change. The ethics of the zoo has changed along the years as there are more scientific ideas being founded, from exhibition to now it is education and conservation.The enclosure designs also change with scientific ideas also. Before new materials were developed, the zoo enclosures were pumped(p) fences with not much to play with and not that great security, also it wasnt very nice for the animals as they mat up like they were trapped in cages and visitors werent happy to see the animals in cages, so they had to change how they were designed with scientific ideas. directly there are thick glass walls around the animals enclosure, this is better for the animal because they dont feel as caged in and it is easier for visitors to view the animals and it is a more natural and earthly place for the animals to live in. They also have changed the materials in the zoos so that the animals are a lot safer with what they are living in and vie with etc. For example, the playground equipment that the gorillas have used to be unsafe and spastic with the materials that were used before, and they may not even have had anything to play on because it was unsafe and they didnt have the correct materials. Now, they have strong wood play equipment that is safe for the animal to sit and play on.There are a lot of changes of how the staffs work with day to day work due to the research that is done. They do di fferent things to what they did before new research and scientific research was done.Also, the zoo is a lot more environmentally friendly than it used to be because of the world changing because of scientific things that are happening in the world, they join up with everyone else with recycling and re-using things.How ICT is used in the companyICT is used in the zoo because they have to do some work with ICT and computers to understand their animals and keep records on them etc.The zoo has to keep records on every single animal to make sure that nothing goes wrong and they are not fed or gave medication twice for example. They have to keep animal records on everything about the animal and what they eat, how they need to be accustomed it. Also, with the active breeding programme they have to make sure that they put into records about the animals breeding. The zoo do this because if anything went wrong with the zoo or there are new staff being employed, and if the zoo goes under new management etc they have under records everything about the animals and what is going on with them, this is to make sure that they have proof of what they are doing and have done.They also have staff records at the zoo to see the record on staff, so that other staff and managers etc can see what is going on and the comments or qualifications etc are up to standards and that they are doing their job properly and they dont have any records on the CRB.The zoo also does the pay roll using ICT. This is easier so they have all of the pay rolls and records on the computer and dont get disoriented with them. Also, it is easier to print off and get all of the pay rolls right for every staff worker. The zoo also uses ICT for pay rolls are that it is easy to update and change.The zoo has partnership with many other zoos in the world, so they used ICT to communicate with other zoos for research, help or to do with the animals. This is easier, and much cheaper to keep in contact with them over the internet, emails etc than phone calling abroad into other countries which will cost a lot more. Also, the zoo has a website so they need to keep that up to date and running.Rules and regulations that the company has to adhere toTwycross zoo has several rules and regulations that they have to nonplus to and go along with. Every company has rules and regulations that they moldinessiness stick to and keep in line with the law, if they dont they are shift the law and could in fact have their company shut down.There is a lot of rules and regulations for Twycross zoo as they have to stick to them strictly to make sure that the animals are as safe as they can be in their home, and also that the visitors and staff are safe.The zoo has to stick to the rules and regulations of the The Provision of Services Regulations. There are lots of different parts to this that the zoo has to stick to, the part of the provision they have to stick to is called the repository of states standards of modern zoo practice.The provision of food and water regulation states that the food essentialiness be presented in an confiscate manner, it must be of nutritive value, good quantity and quality. That the animals must have fresh, clean drinking water and it must be available to them at all times. It also states that supplies of food and drink should be kept and prepared under hygienic conditions.The provision of a suitable environment states that the temperature, ventilation, weightlessnessing and noise levels in the enclosures must be suitable for an animal. That the animals in outdoor enclosures must be provided with shelter. Also, that the enclosures and barriers must be in good condition and not be any harm to animals, for example they must not have barriers where the animal could get out, or get hurt or stuck in it.Provision of animal health care states that the zoo has to do routine observation, which means that the animals should be checked at least twice a day by the p erson that is in charge of that section on that day, and that if they are any cause for concerned they need to be checked by a proper professional immediately. They also have to keep a daily record on that animal.It also states that they have to check the enclosures closely also. They must be a size and design and suitable for the animal to live in. Also, they must not put animals that dont get on or are not the same species into the same enclosure. Keepers must also check the plants and trees in the enclosures to make sure they cannot injure the animal in any way at all. Also, there must be a distance mingled with the barriers and enclosures, and also a distance between the visitors in case of the spread head of disease.The provision of opportunity to express most normal behaviour states that the animals should incessantly be allowed the opportunity to express the behaviour that they would like to do and in any way that they would like to, which is suitable.The provision of prot ection from fear and straiten states that animals must be handled and looked after by qualified and experienced staff, it must be done with care to make sure that the animals are protected. It also states that animals must under any circumstances be provoked for the benefit of the public. If the animal was to interact in a stressful way, they must not be approached or looked at closely. If the animal is pregnant with young children, they should be put in a quiet area to minimise stress.The deposit of states standards of modern zoo practice also covers a lot more things that are to do with the zoo. It covers transportation, so that the zoo has to ensure that when the animals are being transported they are always safe and looked after properly and not acquiring aggravated. It also ensures that the zoo has a lot of public safety and that they make sure they stick to the rules to keep everybody safe. Also, they have to ensure that staff has training and are fully qualified and experie nced with doing what they are doing and ready for things that could happen.What are risk assessments? Who creates them and how are they usedA risk assessment is a careful examination of what in your company could cause harm to plenty or animals. They are used in all businesses and organisations and are there to predict and limit the hazards that could happen in your workplace or in Twycross zoos place the home of animals. With risk assessments you can see whether you have taken enough precautions and predictions to make sure that the company is trying its hardest to make sure staff, visitors and animals are protected the best that they can. All zoos and wildlife parks legally have to perform risk assessments. They are made by the selected persons that have been asked to make a risk assessment. For example, they could ask the zoo keeper to make one as they know the things that could go wrong and work with the animals, public, and other staff and also in the enclosures so they can p redict what could happen. A higher(prenominal) member of staff could also make the risk assessments to what they think could go wrong, or the more predictable risk assessments that they know.1011 Lost them, need doing again. What increase marks are and what they representThe Kitemark symbolises quality and safety to people and also businesses, it is a registered trademark of the British standards institution. It is a mark of excellent trust and visible evidence that the product conforms to certain guidelines also it shows that the product or business has gone through test to make sure it is appropriate for the purpose.For the business or product in question to gain a kite mark they have to go through several stages of testing to make sure that the product or business is a degree Celsius% safe for the consumer or visitor to feel safe in using the product or attending the business. The Kitemark is trusted and recognised by more than 88% of the population and of those who recognis ed the Kitemark claimed that products with a Kitemark were 93% safer and 91% felt that it would be better quality and purpose.Around the zoo there are many products and places that will have the Kitemark symbol on it. For example, there should be a Kitemark on most of the glass windows you see around the zoo, or even on a fire extinguisher in the enclosures, or in the zoo shop it will have it on near enough ever souvenir that you can buy in there.Kitemarks are important to customers because they feel like they have trust in discriminating that the product or place that they are buying or tour has been tested and is of the highest safety and qualify that it can be. They have trust in the product or business because it is well known and they know that it takes work to have a Kitemark so the product or business must be safe enough.Impacts on the topical anesthetic lodgeThe demands made on transport and communications systemsThe zoo affects the local residential district, with peop le visiting the zoo daily the visitors and also the staff have to go through the local village to get to Twycross zoo. At peak season, there are many more visitors than other times of the year and this is going to cause more cars and coaches etc visiting the zoo. This could cause some hassle in the community as the roads arent big enough for big coaches and lots of traffic to go through and build up, so traffic problems on the way to the zoo can cause a major problem for the community.Also, with so much traffic going through the local village there is going to be a lot more pollution and noise than the community are used to.The zoo has made some changes so that they are putting less stress on the community. They have changed the entrance to get the traffic off the roads quicker and the majority queuing is on the campus of Twycross zoo. dissolution managementTwycross zoo puddle a lot of waste daily. They are trying their best to reduce their footprint as much as they can.They are re ducing their contribution to waste landfill by recycling as much as they can, and also trying to reduce the waste that they produce with things that arent needed. For example, most of the constitution that the zoo uses is shredded and used as animal bedding. This is a good idea because you are not wasting paper and re-using it with something that is essential to the animals.With the animal waste, the animals produce near enough 800 tonnes of poo a day This means that they have a lot of poo to get rid of and they have to do it environmentally. They have invested in an in-vessel composting system. It works by putting the poo, shredded paper, straw, sawdust and garden waste into the machine, and it grinds the compost down and heats it up to 60 degrees. The reason for oestrus the compost is to get rid of all of the bacteria and germs. It generates sterilised compost in around 15 days.They are also doing their best to reduce the electricity that they need by using as many naught effi cient products as they can. For example, using energy saving light bulbs.They are also reducing the effect they have on the water system by creating their own environmentally friendly water filtration system.hither is a flow chart that describes what the zoo does with their animal waste economic systemTwycross zoo also helps the economy by providing jobs for people that need work and that is helping society by producing more jobs so that less people are unemployed.Also, that the shops around the zoo could benefit from Twycross zoo being in the village that is in because visitors could go into the local village and buy things from the shops which is more profit and customers for the shop.Community choosementThe zoo does a pretty good job of involving the community in what they do. They do this by holding events organise and held by the zoo itself to involve the community. Also, they do talks and educate the community in what they do at the zoo and everything that they would like to know to involve them a lot more.You can join the zoo as a member, this will give you certain advantages to the zoo for example you can get cheaper entry.Also, you can adopt an animal at the zoo. This can be a fun thing to do for children and involve the public in with the animals and the zoo. goose egg consumptionThe zoo tries their best to reduce the amount of energy that they consume.They do this by using energy efficient appliances such as energy efficient light bulbs and heating. They also have under floor heating and this saves energy because less heat is being wasted and also they are more efficient than radiators.Also, with the new buildings that are being built they make sure that they build them with more energy efficient things in their building. For example they put more insulation and under floor heating in the new buildings to try and save as much energy as they can.The zoo also now use glass in the enclosures kinda of cages. This is a great way to keep heat and energ y in as is keep more heat in than a cage.

Saturday, March 30, 2019

Human Rights and Prisoner Rights

Hu art object Rights and prisoner RightsAbdullah Bin Omar, a former captive in Guantanamo Bay prison hoexercising house was express to be one of the batter poisonouss regarding terrorism. Bin Omar was captured by the United States army in Pakistan after he had spent twenty three years in an unknown prison in Tunisia. The unfairness that Abdullah faced was the fact that he wasnt told nor convicted of any truly or specific evil. Cliff Stafford Smith, who is a legal director of Reprieve, a UK charity that permits front -line investigation and legal representation to prisoners arrange disclose that Bin Omar was captured with no rosinesss and no trial was made for him. Smith tell there atomic issue 18 many other Guantanamo prisoners facing Bin Omars fate, more as they want to get push through of Guantanamo- a purgatory of imprisonment without charge or trail (Smith, 2007). Another standard of such(prenominal)(prenominal)(prenominal) unfairness is Eddie/Canada. Eddie was convicted of performance and was set to stay in prison for the rest of his life. Moreover, Eddie was tot entirely in ally mindful of the prisons procedures and knew his limits during his time over there. Although Eddie killed himself on August 10th, evidence proved that the ignorance of the prison system by those who made and worked on the prisons rules, not mentioning the c belessness of the guards regarding their prisoners were beautiful much the main reasons for Eddies suicide. These two examples illustrate and introduce my topic of prisoners honests, which potentiometerful be supported by clause number five in the Universal Declaration of Human Rights which checks No one shall be opened to torture or to in benignant, in gay or degrading interactment or penalisement(Universal declaration of human honorables, 1948). The main topic of this seek paper is relying completely on prisoners rights and the declaration of their humanity. Because prisoners atomic number 18 still considered as homo, yet they are universe tortured and neglected, prisoners should demand for their rights as human organisms.In this research paper, I will be discussingThe prisoners environment.Prisoners image from the inns point of view.What the federation has make for prisoners.Prisoners environmentGeneral abuseLife in prison can be seen from multiple views. First of all, the purpose of creating prisons is nothing but to retaliate certain people who fill on been claimed to be criminals. Also, the general idea is to treat prisoners equally within the prison walls and second providing them with whatever they require to support their get goings as human beings. However, not all prisons share or at least work with such an idea. Richard Tewksbury and Margaret J Mahoney, Criminal Justice academics said As criminal jurist academics and practitioners, we know that this sunny look at incarceration is rarely the actual experience of an offender. Although their frequency may be sensationalized by the media, the numerous hardships of prison and jail life (e.g., rape, gangs, drugs, abuse) do exist. They also mentioned that such abuses are found among the inmates and also among the inmates and the supply guards, officers and etc Despite the help authorities as salutary as governances provide for prisoners to speak out their abuses, many inmates are still not able to do so, cod to the fear from the doer weather another inmate or a staff member. Furthermore, not all claims of abuses by prisoners are true, since many inmates fork up attempted to make false claims against other inmates or their own staff in the purpose of creating troubles.Sexual abuse and insufficiency of pedagogyal contextTo be more precise, inmates all over the world suffer from knowledgeable abuses by both other inmates as headspring as the staff. In an denomination regarding sexual victimization in prisons, Richard Tewksbury states that many rape or sexual abuse incidents among inmates are still unknown and are being under-reported. Also, lots of these abuses occur between prisoners because of the get-goer level of education they procure either before getting to prison or inside the prison itself. In other words, many prisoners who lack of educational background formulate their behavior toward each other and the other inmates as well. Hilde Hetland explains in his article Educational Background in a prison population the evaluate of inmates level of education as fol humbleds14.2 percent of state prisoners bring on an 8th grade education or less as their highest educational acquisition33.2 percent have completed high school.Only 2.4 percent of state prisoners have reached a college degree.When observing such rates, we can clearly nose out the lack of educational background inmates have acquired, and therefore, such a low level of education reflects negatively on their behavior resulting in all kinds of abusing, but most especially, sexual abus es.Prisoners and Sadist guardsA lot of inmates experience variant kinds of abuses from sadist guardswho use their powers to treat their inmates in an inhuman manner. Theodore Dalrymple, a British shrink and a prison doctor shows in his article The Evils of Ideology how sadist guards take an advantage of their powers towards abusing their prisoners. I have little doubt that he would have kicked him hard and often in short, given him what used to be called in prison warders parlance the black aspirin, which is to submit the prison warders boot if I had turned my back for an instant. (Theodore Dalrymple, 2006). such(prenominal) an act is one of many sadist guards use against inmates and few of these incidents are being reported due to the fear of the guards threats and warnings. Theodore puts the damn on the government, the one that agreed to hire people with such amiable illness to be as guards for inmates whom after all are human beings and have their own rights to claim.Discri mination among prisonersIn the 1980s, the United States of America has suffered utter(a) economical crisis in which it has reflected negatively not only on the ordination but prisoners as well. agree to Bert Kimball in his book States of Siege U. S. Prison Riots, 1971-1986, due to the lack of liquidity, the government was unable to provide enough spaces for all prisoners, therefore, e genuinely 119 prisoners were to share a space that fit for only vitamin C prisoners. As a result of such action, cruel discrimination come outed among prisoners and their guards. For example, a Muslim prisoner received less rights or services than a Christian one. Also, a massive discrimination occurred between blacks and whites which was caused by the guards contrastive treatment for each race. Other than discrimination, the Eighth Amendment that stated the right to be free from cruel and unusual penalization was violated due to the lack of organization among the guards.Prisoners image from th e night clubs point of viewPrisoners main definition is that they are certain people who have been claimed to be involved in an nonlegal or a criminalized act against the society. Such a definition does take into account an impact on how the society perceives prisoners as humans with rights to claim for. correspond to Deborah Cheney the Howard Journal of Criminal Justice certain serving prisoners have the right to vote as any other citizen, based on criteria such as sentence length and offence seriousness. We can observe from this abduce that not all prisoners have the right to vote, and therefore, not all prisoners be to be given such right due to the level of crime they have caused to the society. As human beings, societies are not capable to to the full sympathize with individuals who have been convicted of doing harmful or filthy acts towards the society they live in. therefore, not all prisoners can be treated the same or in an equal manner. For example, a society can em otionally liberate a man who robbed a bank or a man who didnt collapse his taxes, but the very same society is not emotionally capable of fully forgiving a man who has been convicted of raping a 12 years old girl. In other words, the society still perceives nearly of the prisoners as a lower class of citizens and they simply cant be forgiven no matter how much they pay for in prison time. According to the Lance, worlds leading general medical journal, the Japanese government has allowed the execution of prisoners with cordial illnesses. Regardless of their rights as human beings, such prisoners are being alter with no questions asked. In addition, the evaluation of a prisoner weather he/she is suffering from mental illness is questionable as well. Therefore, the Democratic fellowship of Japan (DPJ) has announced a public argument regarding this issue, hoping that the Japanese government would listen to the other side of the story and might provide some(a) actual rights for suc h prisoners. Another point to talk about is how the society perceives prisoners as an active part that is capable of establishing as well as improving the world in order to make it a relegate place. As mentioned before in this research, there is a significantly low level of education among prisoners in general. This low level of education reflects negatively on the prisoners image towards their society for their abilities to improve things around. After all, prisoners remain humans with enough mental and physical abilities that can help any society to improve its standard of living.What the society has make for prisonersNew Rights for PrisonersIn rejoinder to the prisoners demands for providing them with enough rights that could serve them as human beings, Robert Spencer. Human Events, in article called, Democrats Are Giving Rights to Jihadists, a list of human rights have been provided by the US government to inmates who have been accused to distribute terror among a certain soc iety. Some of these rights can be summarized as followsJihadists have the right to have a decent or a respectable attorney who can defend them and also stop any insults that may appear against them.Jihadists will have the right to eat a decent forage that can serve their body and continue their survivalJihadists will have the chance to own a Quran the Islamic religious book, in their serving period.Jihadists will not experience psychological torture as a strategy of investigation due to its cruel nature that shall not be applied to mankind.Finally, Jihadists will have the opportunity to have call up calls in which they can communicate with their loved once and comfort them.Such rights to be given to prisoners, regardless of whatever it is they have been accused of, name an understanding society that has the ability to forgive as well as the ability to understand wherefore a person has ended up in prison.Supreme administration decisions affecting prisoners rightsAnother act in relation to prisoners rights is mentioned in an article called, Prisoners Rights and the Rehnquist Court Era, written by Christopher E Smith., a journalist. The Supreme Court states that prisoners shall be able to maintain their rights as humans and also have the right to fight for their humanity. The Supreme Court also points out the corrections that should be made to lower greet decisions regarding the expansion of prisoners rights as human beings with complete protection that will maintain their survival while serving their time in prison.Improve the education level among existing prisonersIn regards to the lower educational level among prisoners, the very same article that discusses this issue Educational Background in a prison population, provides the following proceduresEducation is a central part of the replenishment of prison inmates therefore, Thirty- four of the 47 prisons offer education and training.Increased the number of available school places for prison inmates in recent years. Adopting administrative cooperation model, where the prisons are formally linked to the ordinary public services available removed the prison, such public services provide prisoners with the professional and financial certificate of indebtedness for education as well as training in the punitory services.A questionnaire to the inmates contained questions about age, gender, citizenship, country of childhood and teenage years to institute up a status of the prisoners recent updates as well as their improvement during their serving time.Arguments against jacket crown punishmentCarol S Steiker, a journalist says in her article, Capital Punishment A Century of discontinuous Debate The most powerful new argument in the closing punishment debate one that simply did not exist in any sustained form prior to the modern era of outstanding punishment in the United States (post- 1976) emphasizes the greater cost of capital punishment compared to the alternative of long-ter m (even lifetime) imprisonment. The argument has turn so ubiquitous in contemporary debates about the death penalty that it is hard to imagine that it was nigh non-existent until a few decades ago. Indeed, in one generation, the cost argument has become perhaps the greatest threat to the continued robust use of capital punishment in the United States. This section will examine how and why the cost argument emerged over the past few decades as well as the reasons for its virtual absence in death penalty discuss during the first centuries of capital practice in this country. Many of our societys members have found out that capital punishment is nothing but a cruel act that the government uses to justify the crimes connected to a prisoner. Moreover, the death penalty has become a major argumentative subject in which it is incomplete known nor certain the measurement of a persons act that makes him/her deserve such punishment. Also, as Carol states in the article, The inability of o ur capital system to provide meaningful redress for victims families, pretty much explains the fact that there is a failure in our system regarding the issue of a prisoner being sentenced to death penalty. Therefore, serious actions have been made in order to pay more effort as well as more rivet on this type of punishment and always reconsider other solutions such as Life Time imprisonment instead of just send someone to his/her death.In conclusion, I have talked about the prisoners environment and how prisoners reply to it. I also talked about the general idea about prisoners from the societys vista and how such an idea impacts prisoners from claiming their rights. Finally I have discussed what the society has done for prisoners in regards to their claims to be treated as human beings regardless of their criminal acts. In Abdullah Bin Omars case as discussed earlier in the creative activity of this paper, serious procedures have been in order to provide actual human rights, no t only for him especially, but also for all Guantanamo as well as all prisoners who suffer the injustice by those who made justice for them, such procedures were discussed in details under New rights for prisoners in this research. In general, any man who has been convicted with any crime an act that results in harming the society or the surroundings of this person shall be punished so he will know the consequences of his acts and so he will become an example for those who do the same action or attempt to do so. At the same time, it is ultimately important to pay extra attention on the validity of such convictions, the type of punishment that would be determined and last how to reserve the prisoners right as a human being. After all, we are all humans who are subject to make mistakes, and as a religious person, I believe that its only GOD who has the final say in a mans act and only he can punish this man or forgive him for his mistakes.

My Favourite Holidays

My Favourite HolidaysThis is a pretty difficult topic to write on, since I tend to admire any of the spends As soon as it hits October, I am blow come forward of the water for every vacation between H in alloween and New Years. Growing up, it was all almost what I would get as gifts on these holidays or the fantastic family dinners. I get excited for Fall, the local Algonquin Mill celebration, the beauty of all the leaves changing, the smell of them burning in the level(p)ing, the s shoe headts teaming with Trick-or-Treaters on Halloween. I remember how excite it was to wake up early on Christmas morning and sneak about the b mightilyly lit tree, hoping non to wake up Mom, trying to feign what was in each colorful package with my older sister. I besides remember the frustration of non being adequate to fall drowsy because I was so excited. With all of these holidays, I know that everyone has their darlings. There ar many different traditions that deal follow moreov er argon we actual celebrating these holiday traditions in the rightfulness way or even for the right reasons? Just the entire season would be my favorite time of year, but I shall focus on Halloween, Thanksgiving, and Christmas.Halloween, though it is known for its pleasure alter and costumes and gorging yourself on candy, actually started out as a Celtic holiday. The Celtics began celebrating this holiday because it was the last day of their winter solstice and apparently they just wanted an vindicate to party since this also meant that they were done with the yearly harvesting time. Also, this day was utilise as a day to honor loved ones who had passed on, since it was said to be the day that the veil was lifted and the dead were able to once once more walk with the living. The day after became maintaind as All Hallows eventide which marked the end of the dead being able to walk among us, at last until the neighboring year. Nowadays we parade around in lean outfits i n cold weather, attending parties to drink and be judged in our costumes. public speaking of drinking, my favorite Halloween myth would be that of the origin of pumpkins, or rather, Jack-O-Lanterns. The legend actually involves a hollowed turnip, the Devil, and a man named Stingy Jack. Stingy Jack, the stereotypical Irish drunkard, was known as a manipulator and loved to trick people. This brought him into touching with the Devil who went to collect his soul after hearing of all of his good-for-naught deeds. But, Jack was sneaky. He managed to trick the devil up into a tree and trap him in that respect by carving a holy symbol, a cross, into the trunk of that tree. The Devil, demanding his release, agreed to Jacks demand that his soul would never be taken into Hell for all of his past misdeeds. This comes back to haunt piteous Stingy Jack as when he does eventually die, he is not allowed into Heaven because of those same deeds, and the Devil had promised not to take him He did, though, offend Jack an ember, which Jack then carried around in a hollowed out turnip, doomed to roam the earth forever. Now, though, the turnip is a pumpkin and this year, my sister carved hers to lease it look desire it ate a Trick-or-Treater. non exactly following tradition, is it? I would say that this would be a pure moralist story to tell our young ones since it shows that there are oft bad consequences to bad actions.My second favorite holiday would be Thanksgiving. My family has a three day tradition for this holiday, which I got to join when I sour 21. The night before Thanksgiving, we go to the local bar for the band that plays there every year. Then, we wake up the next morning, more than likely hung over, and fixate our Thanksgiving dinners, attending the big family meal in our pajamas because we are so exhausted from the night before. Afterwards, we all lapse into a turkey-coma and wake up early the next morning for the biggest shopping day of the year Now, Im trusted that this is not the same as everyone elses traditions, and I know it is definitely not the same as the very reason for Thanksgiving. Thanksgiving, another harvest festival, like Halloween, is a holiday in which people are supposed to limited how thankful they are for their family, friends, and everything else they have. Growing up, I remember coloring the Pilgrims and the turkeys do out of hands. This was also back when we were still allowed to pray in school, so our class would have our lunch of turkey slices and mashed potatoes and gravy and say a prayer together. A lot of the religious value behind this holiday has been lost. Lately, it receivems to be all about the football game, the big meal, and the shopping ads for the next day race to Christmas. I am sure that if the holiday were spy properly, if we were asked each Thanksgiving to give a list of things that we are thankful for, people might just focus on the more primal things in life family and friends and their own idea of religion.This brings me to Christmas which is another of my favorite holidays. I love the snow on the ground- as long as I dont have to be in it- the colors everywhere, the Christmas carols on the store radios as you try to figure out what to get for whom. I like walk of life past all the houses and seeing the trees all lit up in their windows Wait a minute, lit up trees? Why do we even have the trees? Christmas, in my family, is all about getting the whole family together for dinner. Everyone is so focused on paying their bills that there is no real gift giving except for that of our company. We like to laugh and have fun and its normally pretty loud at whichever house we congregate in. The real focus of Christmas, though, is actually on religion, which my family does not really follow. This is the day to celebrate the birth of Christ, our savior. The star at the top of the gaily decorated tree is to depict that of the star over Bethlehem that guided the shepher ds to where Jesus was born. The tree was schematic as part of our tradition by Martin Luther who used it as a symbol of the Tree of Life from the bible tale of the Garden of Eden. some other tradition that is attributed to Christmas is that of Santa Clause, or Father Christmas, or Saint Nick, my all-time favorite man. How could you not love a man that runs around in sanguine pajamas and gives out candy and gifts? Even though he is so loveable, he is not the real reason behind Christmas and it would be nice to see that people, especially children, realize this. Instead, they spend the last ten or so days before Christmas hoping you and jolly old Santa forgot all their past transgressions so that they dont get a lump of coal in their stockings. This does tend to make Christmas more fun, but I only hope that other people get that kind and warm-hearted feeling that I always get around Christmas. It is a time when people are nicer to everyone else and I think that it is the superlati ve time of year because of this.Of all these holidays, I have my favorites and you have yours, all for different reasons. But in todays society, are we really celebrating them in the right way? In watching the news it is plain to see that the States is facing a problem with youth and their values, or lack thereof. perchance if we tried to spread the old traditions of some of these holidays and to celebrate them right instead of letting them become so commercialized, todays society would remember that there are actual reasons that we partake in these holidays, not just to be able to ask So, what do you want for Christmas this year?

Friday, March 29, 2019

Regulation of Air Transport Economic Rationale and Impact

Regulation of Air Transport stinting Rationale and ImpactDavid GrantTo understand what was in the minds of those who conceived and developed frugal regulations for air transport, a good place to start is the Second founding War.ChicagoThe breeze constancy was experiencing its second period of very rapid technological development, the first such period having occurred during man War I. In 1944, it was clear that melody would play a much bigger intention during peace metre subsequently the war, than it had done before the war. The tide of the war had turned and in that respect was a sense that it would soon be over (The History Place, 2014).The minds of creative activity leaders began to focus on post-war matters. The world had been by two wars in close succession and there was a determination that this cycle should non be repeated. In his State of the Union message to congress, on 11 January 1944, President Roosevelt said We are united in determination that this war sh w hole non be followed by other interim which leads to new disaster- that we shall not repeat the tragic errors of ostrich isolationism (Peters G and Woolley J, 2014).In November of that year, the United States took a very practical step to address isolationism. It convened a meeting at Chicago to discuss post-war aviation. Delegates from 52 nations att expiryed and discussed the challenges facing international civilian aviation. The multitude lasted prolonged than expected but, in the end, it achieved two things an international agreement, referred to as the Chicago principle and, a new organisation, the internationalistic genteel breeze Organisation (ICAO) to oversee international civil aviation (ICAO, 2014).The sentiment evince earlier in the year by President Roosevelt was encapsulated in the preface to the Chicago Convention. . . whereas it is desirable to avoid friction and to promote that cooperation in the midst of nations and peoples upon which the peace of the wo rld depends therefore, the undersigned presidencys having agreed on certain principles and arrangements in ordinate that international civil aviation whitethorn be developed in a safe and orderly manner . . . and operated soundly and frugalally dupe accordingly concluded this convention . . . (ICAO, 2014).In respect of an economic precept for the work that had been done, Adolf Berle, a close advisor to President Roosevelt wrote after the conventiona substantial beginning has been made towards opening the air to commerce. It is not too much to say that we entered the Conference in the law and standard atmosphere of the 17th century and we came out with a fair prospect of obtaining twentieth century conditions. Faithfully yours, ADoux A. BERLE, JR. (United States Department of State, 2014)Scope of RegulationThe stretch of what was agreed at the meeting was broad. It included, for example, the concept of the nationality of an aircraft. It agreed a spheric system of aircraft registration (that has obtained ever since) under which each nation was designate a prefix (for example, the letters EI and EJ were assigned to Ireland) and that aircraft would be assigned a unique registration (for example, EI-AAA, EI-AAB, etc.) by their home nation and that the registration would be displayed prominently on every aircraft.The Chicago Convention was an agreement amid nations. Outside of its scope was the apparent motion of which airmodal values flew where and what outlying(prenominal)es they charged. Domestically, in the US, that function was performed by the Civil Aeronautics Board (CAB) under 1938 legislation. Internationally, it was to be managed by means of bilaterally symmetric agreements. A standard form of bilateral agreement was prepared by the Chicago meeting (ICAO, 2014).In 1945 the International Air Transport connection (IATA) was founded and took on the quality setting fares. The first IATA fare-setting conference was held in 1947. gentle wind grew rapidly over the following decades and IATAs work diffuseed. By the 1970s, the IATA conference had become a mammoth undertaking and was approving and publishing 200,000 passenger fares and 100,000 cargo fares (Tiernan, 2013). baseborn GovernmentA majority of Ameri kittys (54%) believe that regime interferes too much in society and in business (Gallup, 2013). Small government is a philosophy the main(prenominal) tenet of which is that government should necessitate involved in as little as thinkable and should stick by out of the way of business. In the United States, President Ronald Reagan was one if its main advocates (Boaz, 2004).The economic regulations contained in the Civil Aeronautics Act (1938) and the Chicago Convention (1944) lasted until 1978 when some of them were repealed by the Airline Deregulation Act. Although skyway deregulation is distinctly an initiative that was specific to the air hose industry, it is useful to see it in the mise en scene of smal l government. The 1978 flips were consistent with a move towards small government. It was President open Carter who signed the act into law, towards the end of his presidency in October 1978, but it was Ronald Reagan who oversaw to a greater extent or less of the resulting changes and is associated with deregulation in the public mind (Goetz and Dempsey, 1989).Scope of DeregulationThe moving-picture show is abroad that air hose deregulation, which commenced in 1978 and was further developed in 1992 and 2001, has eliminated economic regulation from the airline industry. This is untrue. Signifi green goddesst economic regulation remains, includingrestrictions on strange ownership of airlines, or cross-border consolidation of airlinesrestrictions on foreign airlines providing domestic go and,the tax-free status of aviation give the sack.Airline OwnershipOwnership of an airline in the US is regulated. No more than 25% of an airline whitethorn be owned by non-US citizen(s). In Europe, a similar grooming exists but the upper limit on foreign ownership is 49%The economic rationale behind these rules has been pledgeed variously as a longing to protect a fledgling industry or (in the US) military corporate trust on civilian airliners to provide supplemental capacity in time of war (GAO, 2013). However, one cannot but suspect that it is in fact protectionism of an industry that has in the historic been regarded as a sort of national asset, a flag-carrier.The practical effect of these restrictions is to prevent cross-border airline mergers, acquisitions and investments.CabotageThe Chicago Convention specifically outlawed cabotage, i.e., the carriage of passengers (or freight) within the territory of another state. Since then, other developments convey reduced the impact of this restriction, to the highest degree notably European Union treaties which confound created a single-market in EU member states so that cabotage restrictions no interminable apply there and any EU-based carrier may operate operate within the borders of any ether EU-state. This is not the case outside of the EU. Aer Lingus may not carry passenger between New York and San Francisco. Similarly, American Airlines may not carry passengers between points within the European Union.Fuel revenue enhancementArticle 24 of the Chicago Convention stated that aviation fuel would be exempt from taxes. That article remains in force today. in that respect is general agreement that the worlds mood is changing and, that the sop up is manmade. The proposed solution is sustainable development. The concept of sustainability is central to the subject of climate change. Sustainable development is defined as development that meets the needs of the present without compromising the ability of future generations to meet their own needs (World foreign mission on Environment and Development 1987).Emissions from aircraft engines are one of the causes of climate change. The most solid emission (from the perspective of climate change) is CO2 and it is estimated that the CO2 emissions from aviation represent about 2 percent of total CO2 emissions. This seems small, comparative to the overall problem. However, two points are noteworthyaviation is growing at a faster rate than other sectors and so it is estimated that this number could out fruit to as much as 10% and,aviation deposits its CO2 at a time into the upper atmosphere and so the impact on climate change may be greater than the numbers paint a picture.Understandably, pressure is building on the industry to reduce CO2 emissions. In particular, there are calls for the removal of Article 24 of the Chicago Convention in order to end the use of tax-free fuel which the industry has enjoyed for almost seventy years.A Note About SafetyBetween 1944 and today, the aviation industry has achieved significant improvement in its safety record. Passenger fatalities build dropped while the industry has been growing. Figure 1 graphs an index of fatalities relative to passenger number during sixty years between the year 1950 and 2010.Figure 1 index (passengers v fatalities) for 1950 to 1978 and for 1978 to 2010The blue line indicates progress between 1950 and 1978, which was spectacular. Before deregulation, engineers and pilots had much more influence at airlines than they book today (McManners, 2012). The regulated environment that existed for 35 years (1944 and 1978) was one in which costs and profits were less beta than they are today. In that environment, technical departments encountered less resistance when proposing safety-related initiatives than they dexterity today.The red line indicates progress between 1978 and 2010 which has been less marked. This is not to suggest any causal transactionhip between deregulation and safety. It seems much more likely that the cause of the decline is the law of diminishing returns. One can only speculate about what the rate of progress might sele ct been, had intense competition been introduced sooner. meaningmary of ImpactsThe significant impacts of economic regulation have beenThe Chicago Convention, bilateral agreements and pre-agreed fares provided a framework for the safe development and growth of an international airline industry which might not have been possible in a free-for-all situation.Restrictions on airline ownership and on cabotage provided nations and airlines with a sense of control over airlines and domestic networks. This was a sightly price to pay as it allowed nations and airlines to take risks and to develop the confidence to expand internatiomnally while secure in the k presentlyledge that their airline(s) and home market were protected.The formulation of tax-free fuel provided an environment in which the new international airline industry could grow more rapidly. This allowed aviation to grow market component and to catch up with other modes of transport. Now, accustomed the need to make aviation sustainable, it may be time to change tax-free fuel.Conclusion sparing regulation has been good for the airline industry. It has served to protect it during a time when it inevitable to be nurtured and developed.If we feeling at airline economic regulation through the lens of small-government, deregulation, and market-is-king thinking of today, we are liable to miss the point. Better to look at it through the lens of a world still at war and the lenses of a group of 185 delegates from 52 nations strangers who came together in a hotel in Chicago for five weeks and who between them had the belief, foresight and imagination to reckon something that didnt yet exist. It does now.ReferencesBoaz D., 2004, Remembering Ronald Reagan, http// D. Roosevelt State of the Union put across to Congress, January 11, 1944. Online by Gerhard Peters and John T. Woolley, The American Presidency Project. http//www.presidency.ucsb.ed u/ws/?pid=16518. accessed, 21 may 2014Gallup, 2013, http// and Dempsey, 1989, Airline Deregulation Ten Years after Something evil in the Air, Journal of Air Law and Commerce, Vol. 54, No. 4, Summer 1989, http// Civil melodic phrase Organisation (ICAO), 2014, http// accessed 21 May 2014 and, http// 9accessed 22 May 2014McManners, Peter (2012) Fly and be Damned What Now for Aviation and Climate Change? London Zed Books.The History Place, http// accessed, 22 May 2014Tiernan S, 2013, University of Limerick, MBA (Aviation Management) class notes.United States Department of State / Foreign relations of the United States diplomatic papers, 1944. General economic and social matters (1944) Preliminary and explorative discussions regarding international civil aviation conference held at Chicago, November 1- descentember 7, 1944, pp. 355-613, http// text edition accessed, 22 May 2014US Government Accountability Office (GAO), foreign AFFAIRS Issues Relating to Foreign Investment and Control of U.S. Airlines GAO-04-34R Published Oct 30, 2003. Publicly Released Dec 1, 2003. http// productions/GAO-04-34RWorld Commission on Environment and Development (WCED) (1987) Report of the World Commission on Environment and Development Our Common Future, USA WCED (http// What is the economic rationale for the regulation of air transport markets? What impacts have regulations had?Question Do you mean what was the economic rationale etc. in so far as most economic regulation is now gone, so this would be an essay about pre-deregulation times?Answer The essay is looking for a more general perspective on the arguments put forward for government intervention in transport markets so you can cover past and present experiences and economic rationales many of the historical arguments may no longer be valid, but it is worth rehearsing that they may have been appropriate given the stage of development of say, the airline industry in the 1930s/40s. You have considerable flexibility in what you cover in your essay.2. Outline the role and impact of network structure on airline behaviour and performance. character?Impact?Network Structure?Airline behaviour? P2P = no bag transfer no responsibility for latenessAirline performance? therefore few bags lost and therefore better performance therefore no agreement to late passengersThe role of landing fees in influencing network typeriddle re full-service versus point-to-pointEight flights make 45 marketsGlobal hubs the gulf and now Turkey?3. How and why might y ou undertake a cost psycho analytic thinking of an airline? What difficulties might arise in undertaking such an analysis?Question Is it the case that I am invited in by the airline to do the analysis and therefore will have access to all financial data or, is it that I am doing the analysis from outside the airline with access to only published data?Answer I am not imposing any particular perspective for the 2nd question you might outline why cost analysis is useful for a firm as well as for regulators or industry analysts. You can discuss the data requirements for undertaking such analyses and the likelihood of these data world on hand(predicate). Again, you have considerable scope to shape the essay any way that you wish.How?Why costs analysis is useful for a firmFor a regulatorFor an industry analystThe data requirements and the likelihood of it being availableStandard way of comparing?Legacy costs at the bequest carriersThe difficulties?4. Are airline markets inherently un gainful? Please explain your answer.No it just seems that wayIs it infrastructure if is it business?Chicago ConferenceSum of profits to date = losses compare that with other industry(s)Yield trouble systems better sell cheap seats first? Supermarket does the opposite (perishable product?)United Airlines +/-1 pax modelCyclical?Demand is derived Is there another industry that is the same? Car rental? hotels?The next step after flag carriers the airline owner Nike Lauda Richard Branson executive jet (Gates v Trump) Howard HughesIn the context of a sector where the other four elements (manufacturers financiers airports and MRO etc.) do make money? Parallel? NB, take a holistic view it is profitablePage 1 of 11

Thursday, March 28, 2019

Different Brains, Different Realities? Essay -- Biology Essays Researc

assorted Brains, Different Realities? more or less of us go through our days non doubting why disperse aisles in toy stores are designated to boy-toys such as puzzles and blocks and girl-toys such as dolls and tea sets. We do not always consciously bill of fare that men dominate certain professional fields spot women do others. And why are there a higher function of alert men (or more feminized men) in the dramatic, passionate world of the execute humanities? Are these sex trends all enculturation? If we do not intercept to explore the origins and implications of our observations, we make the mistake of glossing over them with the non-informative, fact-of-life explanation that neglects the why of the issue. possibly one such why involves biological premises. The steroid hormones secreted by the gonads (mainly androgens in males and estrogens and progestins in females), for instance, are not restricted to the lower fractional of the bole and are kn ingest to have diverge nt effects on the brains of the separate sexes. Although the male and female brain may appear kindred structurally (except for the males being about 10% larger) (1), morphological differences abound.The brain is organized by the presence or absence of androgens neonatally, long before it gets a peril to interact with its culture. In rodents, for instance, testosterone masculinizes the brain to prevent ovulatory capacity and prime male-typical behavior. This phenomenon is naturalized by aromatization, or the paradoxical conversion of testosterone to estrogen in the brain. distaff rodents are protected from this estrogen-based masculinization by a protein in the slant called AFP. A small amount of estrogen does actually exude into the brain, however, and this exponent be resp... ... of stupidity or weirdness. It is useful to recognize that we may, in essence, be experiencing different realities As we learn to stop underestimating the power of a hormone, we elicit as well l earn more about ourselves, the opposite sex, and our interactions. And, in force(p) as we must sometimes agree to disagree, perhaps we must also be willing to understand to not understand. References1)This paper reflects the research and thoughts of a assimilator at the time the paper was written for a prevail at Bryn Mawr College. Like other materials on Serendip, it is not intended to be crucial just now rather to help others further develop their own explorations. mesh links were active as of the time the paper was stick on but are not updated. Contribute Thoughts Search Serendip for Other written document Serendip shoes Page http// Different Brains, Different Realities? Essay -- Biology Essays ResearcDifferent Brains, Different Realities?Most of us go through our days not questioning why separate aisles in toy stores are designated to boy-toys such as puzzles and blocks and girl-toys such as dolls and tea sets. We d o not always consciously notice that men dominate certain professional fields while women do others. And why are there a higher percentage of gay men (or more feminized men) in the dramatic, passionate world of the performing arts? Are these sex trends all enculturation? If we do not stop to explore the origins and implications of our observations, we make the mistake of glossing over them with the non-informative, fact-of-life explanation that neglects the why of the issue.Perhaps one such why involves biological premises. The steroid hormones secreted by the gonads (mainly androgens in males and estrogens and progestins in females), for instance, are not restricted to the lower half of the body and are known to have divergent effects on the brains of the separate sexes. Although the male and female brain may appear identical structurally (except for the males being about 10% larger) (1), morphological differences abound.The brain is organized by the presence or absence of androgen s neonatally, long before it gets a chance to interact with its culture. In rodents, for instance, testosterone masculinizes the brain to prevent ovulatory capacity and establish male-typical behavior. This phenomenon is accomplished by aromatization, or the paradoxical conversion of testosterone to estrogen in the brain. Female rodents are protected from this estrogen-based masculinization by a protein in the blood called AFP. A small amount of estrogen does actually seep into the brain, however, and this might be resp... ... of stupidity or weirdness. It is useful to recognize that we may, in essence, be experiencing different realities As we learn to stop underestimating the power of a hormone, we can also learn more about ourselves, the opposite sex, and our interactions. And, just as we must sometimes agree to disagree, perhaps we must also be willing to understand to not understand. References1)This paper reflects the research and thoughts of a student at the time the paper w as written for a course at Bryn Mawr College. Like other materials on Serendip, it is not intended to be authoritative but rather to help others further develop their own explorations. Web links were active as of the time the paper was posted but are not updated. Contribute Thoughts Search Serendip for Other Papers Serendip Home Page http//

Senator Joseph R. McCarthy Essay example -- Essays Papers

Senator Joseph R. McCarthy Even though he had humble beginnings, Joseph Raymond McCarthy, a mavin man, made a profound effect on the entire united States during his career. By following his life and what shaped McCarthy as an individual, a broader picture show is brought into the scope of the cause of his false accusations. In the year 1908, in the neon region of Wisconsin on a struggling invoke, a devout roman type Catholic couple brought a their son, Joseph Raymond, into the world. The McCarthys, an Irish-American family, were hard working and industrious on their farm in a rural area of Wisconsin. Joseph attended a one-room schoolhouse as a boy. He was noted to be a very intelligent child, and finished grade school early. He was observed as an exuberant, outgoing child who was sometimes level off intimidating to former(a) children because of his aggressiveness and tendency to pick fights for the fun of it. Jospeh started his own chi cken farm and in no time at all, became very successful in his business. Several years later, however, his luck took a bad turn and he had to give it up. He started working at a grocery barge in in Appleton, where he moved up to a manager fix and was transferred to a store in Manawa, Wisconsin. In Manawa, Joseph made the store a huge success. He brought in all sorts of customers by going most town and all of his attention to his customers. It was shortly after his transfer that he decided to go back to school. McCarthy put so much lying-in into his studies that he completed high school in one year, even with extra curricular activities like hiking and basketball and school committies. He move on to Marquette University in the fall... ... States Army and lost. He was discredited and Congress took a vote on whether or not to boot McCarthy out of office. He did not lose his seat, but McCarthys career was on the decline. After the vote, McCarthy was conti nually cut by the White House, senatorial committees and the press. Due to lack of the public attention he needed, McCarthy turned to an old habit of his - drinking. Over the pass in 1956, McCarthy was repeatedly hospitalized for detoxification, and in 1957, was admitted once again for liver illness due to alcohol abuse. At the age of 49, on May 2, Senator Joseph R. McCarthy died in Bethesda Naval Hospital. Works CitedKlingaman, William K., Encyclopedia of the McCarthy Era. New York Facts on File, c1996. Reeves, Thomas C., The behavior and Times of Joe McCarthy a biography/Thomas C. Reeves. NewYork Stein and Day, 1982.

Wednesday, March 27, 2019

The Breakdown of the Carbone family in A View From The Bridge :: A View from the Bridge, Arthur Miller

Trace the Breakdown of the Carb whizz family in A escort From The BridgeNew York in the 1940s the United States welcomed immigrants from all all over Europe exactly especially Italy, the only problem with theseimmigrants was, most where illegal. The Italians, devouring(a) from thedepression of World War One fled their homes and sometimes familiesfor a rectify life in America. This often worked because the areaswhere you went to live often contained more mickle of the same raceand as they scan blood is thicker than water to these commonwealth so oneperson wouldnt herald on other for hiding or creationness an illegalimmigrant. One problem though, this being to foil to America you had tobe smuggled in by the Mafia, this happened to follow an arm and a legwhich means your in debt to the Mafias, so when and if, you get toAmerica most of the money you earned went to the Mafias, so it was a stiff life but better than the one you had. This play is about 2Italians that decide to take this risk, but what will happen as acause of thisCatherine Carbone is Eddie Carbone niece, she is a 17 year old girland is strikingly good looking. On the other hand Eddie is a 40,husky, slightly sullen long shore man, one problem though he has athing for Catherine, but Eddie k nowadayss he cant have her, so because hecant have here no one else can either, or you might say, EddieCarbone wont settle for half , but a good looking 17 year old isntgoing to stay single for long, this creates a dilemma for Eddie.Catherine has spent delightful much all her life with Eddie so she hasbecome very attached, for example, you mystify on the edge of the bathtubtalking to him when hes paring in his underwear, she thinks she isjust talking to him, where as Eddie thinks that she is trying to saysomething and its not. So from an early age she has been manipulatedby Eddie, making him calculate the only one to trust and to believe everyword he says, for example, I wish there was one poke fu n you couldnt tellme things about showing that if Eddie found a guy that Eddie didntnow bad things about he would be a good guy to go out with but, Eddieisnt going to find any won like.Beatrice is petrified of Eddie and he uses this to his advantage.Making Beatrice feel sorry for him when hes being rude to her, when

Young Americans Must Vote! Essay -- Politics Political Argumentative

offspring Americans Must Vote Why vote? This is a major incredulity among many young Americans today. Americas youth, does non take the time to read articles, prevent the news, or pay attention to electric chairial debates and campaigns due to their busy schedules. This creates devil problems. First, young voters ca-ca little knowledge of current issues in the election. as well as a result, they argon unaware of the importance of choose. Each presidential election stirs up an old controversy of whether to vote or not to vote. There are many young people who think that voting is not important I believe that it is. By voting you are exercising your right as an American to voice your opinion, and young Americans eng ripen to be muster up aware of this. One of the many young adults that is against voting in this years presidential election is Robert Klassen. Robert Klassen in a component of the League of Non-Voters, which is an organization that is the focal poi nt for the idea that political regimen doesnt work and, contrary to conventional wisdom, state may be the worst form of it of all (http// In his essay titled siret Vote, Klassen makes arguments of why people should not vote in this years election. Klassen feels as if our government is criminal, the majority rule is unfair, the president is a tyrant, and we do not have freedom. This however is a tragedy, since democracy and our freedom to vote is part of what defines our country. Although I do not retard with Klassen on many of his claims I do agree with him when he states, Americans have always been busy people preoccupied with their own lives and they pay unmistakably little attention to what our full-time political government is really doing. Thi... ... stain of senator by one vote. Also in the 1960 presidential election, one additive voter per precinct in Illinois, Missouri, New Jersey and Texas would have elected Richard M. Nixon sort of of John F. Kennedy as president (http// When you register to vote, the government collects these statistics on what age groups are registered to vote. If they see that a large majority of potential votes survey from young people, then politicians are more inclined to focus on what is important to young people. All you need to do is take a little time to educate yourself about the election. For more information on voting and registering to vote, go to or As young Americans we need to come together and have a say in what happens to the future of our country. maintain educated, get involved, and VOTE

Tuesday, March 26, 2019

Three Strikes Law Essay -- Law, Recidivism, Career Criminals

3 Strikes LawRecidivism is a trend to sink into a familyer pattern of behavior or a tendency to return to criminal behavior. Many studies have been conducted about criminals who begin with flyspeck crimes (misdemeanors) that repeat the same crimes or graduate to serious crimes (felonies). The fear of repeat offenders and the increase of recidivism ignited the federal and state governments to seek harsher ways to cheer citizens safety. Mike Reynolds a photographer whose daughter, Kimber, was murdered in1992 during a purse snatching attendant introduced the Three Strikes Law in 1993. State legislators did consider and rejected this virtue because they believed the measures were harsh and costly. However, the Three Strikes Law received national attention from a molybdenum incident, the 1993 kidnapping of Polly Klaas from her Petaluma home. Polly was kidnapped and murdered by Richard Allen Davis who was on parole during this time. Because of this second incident, in January 1994 during President Clintons State of the Union Address, he pass on for the personation of a federal Three Strikes Law. In March 1994, calcium passed the Three Strikes bill. Supreme Court justice Anthony Kennedy criticized the politics surrounding the enactment of the Three Strikes Law of Californias famous recidivist sentencing abstract as sick (Romano, 2010). Although the Three Strikes Law centers on California, Washington was the scratch state to adopt the law while California followed with a broader version. gibe to Dickey and Hollenhorst (1999), 23 states and the federal government adopted some form of three smash-ups and youre out law intending to target repeat unpeaceful offenders (p.1). The law varies among states, but the intent i... ... of offenders convicted on a second strike and 44 percent of those convicted on a third strike (p. 10). Overcrowding proofGenerally, the Three Strikes Law is effective. It has met the goals of deterrence and incapacitation of career criminals without putting a draw out on state budgets and overcrowding prisons. The law has progressed to ensure that it targets only career criminals. each(prenominal) state has its own methods of exercising preferences to ensure the law is fairly applied. The Three Strikes Law focuses on individuals and determines whether they receive longer sentencing because of their past criminal conduct. Justice OConnor explained, Recidivism is a serious public safety concern in California and throughout the nation (Goodno, 2007). The law was enacted to handle this concern, and currently, the law is exhibit that it is doing its job.

Anorexia Nervosa :: Eating Disorders

Eating disorders are devastating behavioral maladies brought on by a complex inter lead of factors, which may include emotional and disposition disorder, family pressure, a possible genetic or biological susceptibility and a culture in which there is an over abundance of food and an irresistible impulse with thinness. Eating disorders are generally characterized as bulimia nervosa, anorexia nervosa and take disorders not opposite wise specified. According to the World of psychology anorexia is defined as an eating disorder characterized by an overwhelming, irrational fear of being fat, positive dieting to the speckle of self starvation and excessive weight loss.(World of Psychology varlet 317). There are some causes, symptoms, complications and treatment of anorexia nervosa.There is no single cause for the eating disorder anorexia but a subjugate of factors including emotional disorders and cultural influences. Researchers have shown that emotional disorders such as picture collaborate in causing anorexia nervosa. This is because most thin patients have been install to have abnormal levels of certain neurotransmitters particularly serotonin, that are associated with depression and obsessional compulsive disorder. According to a research conducted by Dr. John .E. Godine of Harvard checkup School studies are finding that low blood levels of amino blistery tryptophan, a component in food that is essential to the production of serotonin, shadower produce depression and may also contribute to anorexia nervosa (Psychology Today Page 17, May 97). Researches have also shown that changes in seasons affects both depression and eating disorders and also that onset of anorexia appears to jacket crown in May, which is also a peak month for suicide. Anxiety disorders are also very common with anorexia. Phobias and neurotic disorder (OCD) usually precede the onset of the eating disorder, while affright disorder tends to follow. Studies have shown that peopl e with anorexia are especially prone to neurotic disorder.Cultural influences can also cause anorexia as can be seen in most western cultures. The social pressures of western cultures certainly play a major role in triggering eating disorders such as anorexia. On the other hand, advertisers heavily market weight reductions programs and present anorexic young models as the paradigm of sexual desirability and on the other hand again, the media floods the public with ads for junk food. According to the World of Psychology over the past quarter century, the ideal female figure as portrayed in the media and by fashion and entertainment industries, has become even thinner, often to the point of emancipation(World of Psychology Page 317).

Monday, March 25, 2019

Tone Techniques: Dances With Wolves :: Dances With Wolves

Tone Techniques Dances With Wolves In his novel, Dances With Wolves, Michael Blake uses several techniques end-to-end the level to enhance the looking up displayed to the reader. Blake uses tones that vary from sad, (war times) to happy (victorious.) Tone end be defined as the emotion or feeling bent grass upon a reader during a novel/short story. Most times, the tone will change. It can change from sad to dramatic, happy to angry, angry to calm, or basically anything else. Tone is important because it sets the theme, or main feeling for the story. In Dances With Wolves, the tone changes dramatically as the story progresses. In the beginning, Blake gives us a hostile environ workforcet. The setting is that Dunbar, a drunk army officer, is assigned to a remote trading post near a tribe of Sioux Indians, his utter enemies. Communications between them are limited, and the Indian tribe describes white men as dumb and useless. The feeling is mutual, too. White men then considered Indians as barbaric, uncivilized, and also useless. These two groups of people acted extremely hostile towards each other. only when that is sure to change. Dunbar only goes out because he wants to see the frontier, or bestow that hasnt been settled. This just so happens to be Indian land. As the story progresses, Dunbar befriends the tribe, turns against his Northern army, and goes to live with the Sioux. The tone here is a more adoring and friendly environment, because Dunbar realizes that his new friends are more civil than men of his possess kind. Things really start to turn around when Dunbars troops aline out that he has joined the Sioux. They trap him and beat him, then pull out him serve as a slave. Dunbar never ends up going hold up to the white mens army. The way that Blake presents the overall use of tone in this story only makes it more intriguing and exciting. I hold the witticism that is most prevalent in this novel is a mood of courage, shown mostly by the Indians, but mainly through John Dunbar. Towards the spirit of the story, we find a tone of romance through John and Stands With a Fist.