Friday, May 31, 2019

Social Hysteria in Shirley Jacksons The Lottery Essay example -- Shir

Social Hysteria in The Lottery Tradition is a aboriginal theme in Shirley Jackons short story The Lottery. Images such as the black box and characters such as Old Man Warner, Mrs. Adams, and Mrs. Hutchinson display to the reader not only the tenacity with which the townspeople cling to the tradition of the lottery, but also the wavering support of it by others. In just a few pages, capital of Mississippi manages to examine the sometimes long forgotten purpose of rituals, as well as the inevitable questioning of the necessity for such customs. The black box represents around the only part of the original ritual that has been preserved since the lottery began. It is there not only to hold the papers that will be drawn, but also to represent to the townsfolk the tradition. The black box is constructed of pieces of the original box, a link to the time when the purpose of the lottery was clear. Most of the old custom has been forgotten forest chips have been replaced with paper slips , and on one can remember the recital and ritual salute that had previously been part of the lottery but the o...

Thursday, May 30, 2019

Quote Analysis from Shakespeares Hamlet :: essays research papers

Hamlet, a play written by the prominent writer, Shakespeare, is slightly a Danish prince whose pay off was murdered by his uncle who then married his mother. The story follows Hamlet for a time period of a few months temporary hookup he decides how to deal with the situation of his uncle and mother. An important rising conflict is Hamlet?s soliloquy during act III scene I, where he finally realizes the implication of his actions towards his uncle, Claudius. Fortinbras? prompt rebuttal against Denmark for his catch?s murder intrigued Hamlet and made him examine the emphasis needed to be placed on the death of his cause father. Throughout the soliloquy, Hamlet mentions many theorys surrounding this dilemma and shows a deeper, more leave alone-powered side of himself. ?To be or not to be- that is the question, although this quote is barely a innocent ten words, its value is innumerable. Hamlet is contemplating life and death, not totally for himself, but also for Claudius. He is considering committing suicide with all the pressures placed on him by his father?s ghost and his conscience knowing the truth regarding his predecessor?s murder. Hamlet is questioning whether or not it is better to live everyday argus-eyed up and seeing his step-father who had once been kn deliver solely as his uncle, and acknowledging the crime committed. Or is it more beneficial to simply to concede defeat and kill himself, free himself from performing the very deadly sin he condemns Claudius for doing. Hamlet then moves on to discuss death and metaphorically relates it to an endless sleep that ends all heartache. The purview of eternally sleeping seemed appealing for him, but then he continues to analyze it, and determines there must be a reason people live scurvy lives. Simply put, humanity is afraid of death, but if it is unstainedly a long nap, what is there to fear? Therefore, Hamlet decides that the dreams experienced after death is worse than those horrible liv es. This thought may have given him new look on life, or he could have just possibly realized that he was the only person left to defend his father?s honor, but later in the story, Hamlet has a sudden change of heart and resolves that he pull up stakes kill Claudius no matter the obstacles in his path.Quote Analysis from Shakespeares Hamlet essays research papersHamlet, a play written by the prominent writer, Shakespeare, is astir(predicate) a Danish prince whose father was murdered by his uncle who then married his mother. The story follows Hamlet for a time period of a few months time he decides how to deal with the situation of his uncle and mother. An important rising conflict is Hamlet?s soliloquy during act III scene I, where he finally realizes the consequence of his actions towards his uncle, Claudius. Fortinbras? prompt rebuttal against Denmark for his father?s murder intrigued Hamlet and made him examine the emphasis needed to be placed on the death of his own fath er. Throughout the soliloquy, Hamlet mentions many thoughts surrounding this dilemma and shows a deeper, more will-powered side of himself. ?To be or not to be- that is the question, although this quote is only a mere ten words, its value is innumerable. Hamlet is contemplating life and death, not only for himself, but also for Claudius. He is considering committing suicide with all the pressures placed on him by his father?s ghost and his conscience knowing the truth regarding his predecessor?s murder. Hamlet is questioning whether or not it is better to live everyday waking up and seeing his step-father who had once been known solely as his uncle, and acknowledging the crime committed. Or is it more beneficial to simply to concede defeat and kill himself, relinquishing himself from performing the very deadly sin he condemns Claudius for doing. Hamlet then moves on to discuss death and metaphorically relates it to an endless sleep that ends all heartache. The thought of eternally sleeping seemed appealing for him, but then he continues to analyze it, and determines there must be a reason people live low-pitched lives. Simply put, humanity is afraid of death, but if it is merely a long nap, what is there to fear? Therefore, Hamlet decides that the dreams experienced after death is worse than those mournful lives. This thought may have given him new look on life, or he could have just possibly realized that he was the only person left to defend his father?s honor, but later in the story, Hamlet has a sudden change of heart and resolves that he will kill Claudius no matter the obstacles in his path.

Wednesday, May 29, 2019

Discuss the similarities and differences between ?new terrorism? and th

Pantha rei as it was stated by the Greek philosopher, Heraclites of Ephesus (sixth and fifth centuries B.C.) everything flows, everything changes. Change in the contemporary world is an extremely warm process. Nothing remains the same as it was in the past. In political science especially, some notions (e.g. sovereignty) demand redefinition. The changing nature of all things also includes the political concept of terrorism. The official approach to this changing terrorism is rather complicated. The terrorist of yesterday is the hero of today, and the hero of yesterday becomes the terrorist of today . There is then a cracking need to know what contemporary terrorism is and what it is not. Terrorism is a calculated use of power to achieve a political change, thus violence or equally important, the threat of violence is used and directed in pursuit of, or in service of a political aim . Terrorism is an prospect of political strategy, a willful choice made by an organization for political and strategic reasons (efficacy) rather than as the unintended outcome of psychological or social factors . However, terrorism is difficult to define because the meaning of the term has changed so frequently over the past 200 years. It has morphed from positive connotation during the French mutation (closely associated with the ideals of virtue and democracy ), through the revolutionary movement and finally to a religiously motivated act as it is mainly perceived today. Nevertheless, we have to learn ourselves whether old and brisk terrorism really exists, or maybe the phenomenon we are facing today reminds us an old wine in a new bottle.Two questions frame the discussed issue 1.What is the nature of new terrorism?2.What is the magnitude of threat of new terrorism?Old and new terrorism are decided in five points, as the table below shows .Old TerrorismNew TerrorismIdeologicalVague or religious motivationsHierarchical unorganised (lone wolf, ad hoc) therefore more(pren ominal) difficult to penetratePropaganda by deed (bringing issue to the table)More violent (killing for the sake of killing)Sub-nationalTransnational and International (global... ...uld be considered more dangerous. The new rules of an old game make it more lethal and unpredictable. Let us examine only one example Nearly every terrorist convocation in Iraq has recently captured a foreigner but additionally, they have produced an accompanying video, where a list of demands is outlined, a deadline is set, hostages plea for their lives, and in several instances, they are killed by beheading. Then these kidnappings merge a technique of old terrorism in service of new style terrorism. Furthermore, now more than ever, the media are a brute of war. These dramas were broadcasted by the media all over the world. This is how the media helps to evolve terrorism they send the terrorist a clear although unspoken message to maintain access to the airwaves, you need to devise tied(p) more out rageous tactics. Thus, the new global terrorist, caught into the trap of globalization, will have to break more rules, cross more psychological borders, and crack more taboos in order to exist. This can be considered the most dangerous feature of the new terrorism not only do we not know when the next dishonour will strike, we either have no idea what actually is going to happen .

The Progression of the Medium Change between the Painting with the Digi

The Progression of the Medium Change between the Painting with the digital ImageAlbert Borgmann, in his Technology and the Character of Contemporary Life, devises the device paradigm as an illustration of the pattern into which the stuff that defines technological existence falls. Even though Borgmann writes his book in 1984, it is of value to examine the paradigm in context of current developments of technological society. It becomes a question of whether the device paradigm is still applicable to the current technological setting, or if it is truer now than even before. It is thus taken into consideration in light of the specific instance of the thing, as Borgmann uses it, that is a create prior to the modern period. The specific thing of a movie is contrasted to the technological device of a digital image. The progression of the medium change between the painting to the digital image will be examined as well as the skill it takes to produce them. Availability of these is o bserved, along with the consequence of such a metabolic process in the essence of the thing and device.First, however, Borgmann states the thing as a pretechnological object in the Heideggerian sense. The thing gathers the fourfold, being earth, sky, mortals, and divinity. Thus it is something which reveals the world in all its aspects. In this case, a painting of the medieval times is one which is created by a master. The master has undergone a lifetime of training under another master, and the business of the humanities is under the guild system. A single painting would take many weeks to complete, and all instruments in its creation are known instinctively to the master. The pigments are pop off ground and prepared, as are the brushes and th... ...into a commodity of affluence, and that is what produces disengagement. Affluent commodities disengage in their diversion from focal things, which result in dissolution from reality and detachment from the world. As the worl d is revealed through technological devices, it is no longer a world of humanity, but a world of technology and its devices. Such an existence deteriorates into lonesomeness and depression, both of which are detrimental to the being of humanity. In truth, it can be said, by line of the preceding argument, that technological existence may well lift about the extinction of the human race, unless it is counteracted. This counteraction, may, as Borgmann claims, lie in a counterbalance of focal things and practices.Works CitedBorgmann, Albert. Technology and the Character of Contemporary Life. sugar University of Chicago Press. 1984.

Tuesday, May 28, 2019

Herbert George Wells :: essays papers

Herbert George Wells Herbert George Wells was one of the worlds most talented writers. He was able to write in numerous styles, whether it be science-fiction or nonfiction. Although talented in many areas and genres of the literary world, it is for his contribution to the realm of science-fiction that he will always be remembered. H. G. Wells is known as The Shakespeare of Science-Fiction. He is one of the writers that gave credibility to a rising new genre of science-fiction, or Scientific Romance as it was first called in the late nineteenth century (the genre was not called science-fiction until 1929, (Wells, H. G. The War of the Worlds viii)). Herbert George Wells was born on September 21, 1866, in a shabby home, as Wells himself once called it, in Bromley, Kent, England to Joseph Wells and Sarah Neal Wells (Borrello, Alfred 2). He had two older brothers, Frank and Fred. His family was poor but shabby-genteel (H. G. Wells A Collection of Critical Essays 3). Wellss father s ell china and played professional cricket, and his mother was a housekeeper to the gentry, Sir Harry Featherstonhaugh. Though devoted to his parents, he viewed them as willing victims of society (Borrello, Alfred 2). He was angry at their refusal to take effective measures to improve their place in life. And it was because of this that he did not care for the working class and envied the solidly established middle class. As a boy H. G. Wells had always been physically active, but after he broke his leg at the age of 8 in 1874, he couldnt do too much. During his period of convalescence he turned to books for the first time. When Herberts mother went to work at the gentrys house, she took Herbert with her (his older brothers were apprenticed into the drapery trade). Sir Harry Featherstonhaugh had a swelled variety and number of books. With this large availability of new books, Wellss reading broadened. From 1884-1887 he was a student at Normal School of Science, London. There he stu dy biology under the well-known Thomas H. Huxley. In the early 1890s, Wells started teaching science classes, which led him to write a biology textbook. He as well as started writing articles in the popular magazines that were beginning to pop up everywhere. At the invitation of one of the editors, he began writing science-fiction stories in the mid 1890s.

Herbert George Wells :: essays papers

Herbert George well Herbert George swell was oneness of the worlds most talented writers. He was able to write in many styles, whether it be science-fiction or nonfiction. Although talented in many areas and writing styles of the literary world, it is for his contribution to the realm of science-fiction that he will always be remembered. H. G. Wells is known as The Shakespeare of Science-Fiction. He is one of the writers that gave credibility to a rising new genre of science-fiction, or Scientific Romance as it was first called in the late 19th century (the genre was not called science-fiction until 1929, (Wells, H. G. The War of the Worlds viii)). Herbert George Wells was born on September 21, 1866, in a shabby home, as Wells himself once called it, in Bromley, Kent, England to Joseph Wells and Sarah Neal Wells (Borrello, Alfred 2). He had two older brothers, Frank and Fred. His family was poor but shabby-genteel (H. G. Wells A Collection of Critical Essays 3). Wellss fathe r sold china and vie professional cricket, and his mother was a housekeeper to the gentry, Sir Harry Featherstonhaugh. Though devoted to his parents, he viewed them as willing victims of society (Borrello, Alfred 2). He was angry at their refusal to take strong measures to improve their place in life. And it was because of this that he did not care for the working class and envied the solidly established middle class. As a boy H. G. Wells had always been physically active, but after he broke his leg at the age of 8 in 1874, he couldnt do too much. During his decimal point of convalescence he turned to books for the first time. When Herberts mother went to work at the gentrys house, she took Herbert with her (his older brothers were apprenticed into the drapery trade). Sir Harry Featherstonhaugh had a large variety and spell of books. With this large availability of new books, Wellss reading broadened. From 1884-1887 he was a student at Normal School of Science, London. There he studied biology down the stairs the well-known Thomas H. Huxley. In the early 1890s, Wells started teaching science classes, which led him to write a biology textbook. He also started writing articles in the popular magazines that were beginning to pop up everywhere. At the invitation of one of the editors, he began writing science-fiction stories in the mid 1890s.

Monday, May 27, 2019

Mcdonalds – Tnc

McDonalds the 90th largest economy in the world feeds about 1 percent of the worlds world a day. Thats 68 million people It hires more than 1 million workers In the US per year and Is the worlds largest toy distributed. McDonalds also created the Ronald McDonald House charity, which houses more than 6000 families a year in Australia alone. However, this Illinois-based company is undeniably threatening the global village. It is doing so in a lot of ways, including the damage it inflicts to the milieu, its exploitation of foreign and domestic diligence and its active impacts on traditional cultures.In this seminar, I will be analyzing different pictures that support my argument that McDonalds Is directly destroying the global village. I think that through the Impacts It has upon the environment In which we live, McDonalds is directly destroying the global village. As a large company, McDonalds needs a lot of resources to fuel its growth. For example, Americans alone consume over 1 meg pounds of beef at McDonalds every year. A cow produces 250 ml of methane per day on average. Think of how much methane is created by the sows needed to produce 1 jillion pounds of beefMcDonalds has also been accused by Greenback of feeding Its chickens with soybeans grown on farms In the Amazon rainforests. These soybean farms are cleared Illegally. Leading to volume deforestation In the Amazon. By doing this, McDonalds not only encourages illegal traders in the Amazon, but also sends a worldwide message that deforestation is a operable option that can lead to contracts selling produce to McDonalds. Encouraging excessive methane production and deforestation are Just a few of the ways in which McDonalds helps to destroy the environment.McDonalds also negatively affects the global village by exploiting members of the workforce. This Is done through the misuse of domestic and foreign labor. McDonalds has always been the target of accusations that they exploit jejune labor, p aying them wages that are too low to be readily lived upon. These reduced rates can be involven in this table. But most tardily McDonalds has tried to tackle these accusations head on by releasing an example budget for someone who works for the company. From the start this budget was flawed, as you can see here, the employee would devote to work two Jobs to survive.This fact shows that an employee could not be sustained on a McDonalds wage. Secondly, McDonalds cited that health cover costs $20. This is not the case, for that amount you would be alike(p)ly only to get say, ambulance cover. Thirdly, try spending only $25 a day on Just food, let alone drinks, clothes and some other necessities. This budget on its own, is certain evidence that you would not be able to live on a McDonalds wage. In extreme cases some people have had to choose between paying bills and eating food.This exploitation of cheap labor is another reason why I think McDonalds Is contributing too pocket-size global village. McDonalds Is also destroying the global village by abolishing various cultures from around the world. As seen in the picture here, McDonalds is intervening with traditional culture, replacing traditional pastimes, like food-preparation and consumption, with an internationalists product. Often in these traditional cultures, things like food can be tied up with rituals, so food is linked to their cultural heritage.By replacing pretend to pass on their cultural stories through food. However some people in other parts of the world have realized that this tragic spillage of culture is occurring. For example, the people of a small town east of Melbourne called Tacoma has recently protested against there being a McDonalds built in the town. 80 000 people and then far have signed a petition demanding that a McDonalds franchise not be installed in their town. The fact that the company destroys culture and that people are realizing it is another reason that McDonalds is des troying the global village.

Sunday, May 26, 2019

Advertising and Public Relations Portfolio Essay

1.Write a report on experience with regards to approaching the organisation First link was via telephone where I set up an oppugn time with Mr. Solly Khuthama. The contact was actually positive and he was supportive and understanding with the need for this campaign. Once at the Tumelo Childrens fel piteousship, I met with Miss Mpho who was standardisedwise very serve upful with fully answering all my questions near the organisation, as well as professional.How did the organisation respond to the requestThey were two very positive and looked in the lead to the finished dialoguecampaign. Any training I needed was fully provided by dint of open communication channels.Establishing a working relationship with the organisationIt was unconquerable in the interrogate that all set ahead communication would be done telephonically and via e-mails between either Mr. Solly or Miss Mpho. As all questions were answered during the interview period, more thanover the letters to and from the organisation, as required, were to be followed up on. Please refer to appendix A and C.Identifying the communicator for the campaignThe communicators of Tumelo Childrens home office be both Mr Solly and Miss Mpho on behalf of the entire organisation as Mr. Solly is the manager and Miss Mpho is the admin clerk/receptionist and they both over listen the entire running of the centre.1.2 Identify the tar tie listening(According to structured Organisational communication text book, 2013459)1.2.1 Problem statement for the researchTo establish financial support and raise consciousness nearly the Tumelo kinsfolk for the intellectually invalid Children.1.2.2 Sub- choresa) To raise consciousness amongst capableness sponsors in capital of southmost Africa who argon task owners. It contributes to solving the main problem as to the highest degree of the business in capital of South Africa do non sock slightly this organisation and cannot help without any previous know ledge of its necessitate.b) To find out the potential business owners ineluctably (in the Pretoria area) and communication expectations of the organisation- if impulsive to deal with Tumelo topographic point for the mentally Handicapped Children.This leave alone help solve the main problem as when the businesses take hold all the information about the post, then(prenominal) march on steps can be bundlen to ensure that all funding and support offered is dropd as desired.c) To school potential donors in the Pretoria area with the use of different medias about the Tumelo Home for the Mentally Handicapped Children. This give contribute positively due to change magnitude consciousness by a larger media reportage than previously, and inform the potential Pretoria donors about the organisation in its entirety.1.2.3 Research questionsa) Research question 1What is the current cognizance of the Tumelo Home for the Mentally Handicapped Children, with Pretoria based busines s owners?b) Research question 2If willinging to deal with the Tumelo Home for the Mentally Handicapped Children, what would the potential business owners needs be?c) Research question 3What media could be used to educate potential donors about the Tumelo Home for the Mentally Handicapped Children?1.2.4 social unit of analysisSince the focus of the communication campaign is on business owners in the Pretoria area, the unit of analysis will be on these individuals, as they will be the receivers of the questionnaires.1.2.5 Population(s)The target population identified for this study is of heterogeneous Pretoria based businesses, while the accessible population is only the business owners that agree to extend to up to take the questionnaire.1.2.6 Sampling proceduresRandom sampling questionnaires were sent out to various business owners via online methods, such as Facebook and e-mails, as well as telephonically through references given by employees, in a cross sectional manner of in dustry.1.2.7 Methodology and measuring instrumentQuantitative methodology is used as it more focused on the quantity of answers alternatively than the quality of the answers received. The measuring instrument used are questionnaires which answer specific questions of the desired target audience that are easy to complete and non-confusing. Please see APPENDIX B for questionnaire.Percentages of companies willing to support a non-profit organisation 5 of the 9 participants indicated willingness to consider supporting (if more information could be obtained), leaving a total of 35.7% willing.Awareness of Tumelo Home for the Mentally Handicapped Children 85% had indeed not heard of this home, leaving 14.3% (2 persons) having prior knowledge before the questionnaire.Information heardThe first person indicated that the information previously heard was abstract, while the other said that the information shared about the home sounded negative as the children need so much still.Preferred com munication medium100% stated E-mail as their preferred communication medium.Preferred media mediumPlease note for the preferred mediumMany participants chose more than one option with preferred media mediums. 6 of the 14 participants indicated that they would prefer the website as a media medium, yet as the Tumelo Home for the Mentally Handicapped Children has a website already, I changed their selection to a newspaper advert as I loss to create broader knowledge through media mediums not yet explored before.1.2.9 Audience segmentationDemographics was provided for as one question asked for the situation of the company, as the questionnaire was specifically aimed at the Pretoria area, yet provision was provided for other areas. Another question was to find out whether or not the company would be willing to invest in the Tumelo Home for the Mentally Handicapped Children, to know the percentages that the communication campaign should be aimed at, and what their specific needs would b e for this to occur.1.2.10 Self-reflection(a) I discovered that the Tumelo Home for the Mentally Handicapped Children lacks reportage as most of the audience members had never heard of them before. (b) The extent that I predicted the results was a surprise as I believed that other forms of media mediums would be chosen, yet were not. (c) It was worthwhile in conducting the research as now the communicationcampaign manager knows that there is a dire need of this awareness campaign and what media to use to get the word out as indicated by personal preferences of the random audiences. (d) The research could influence the way in which this communication campaign is planned due to the results indicating an hold percentage of awareness in which demographic areas, as well as showing that while the communications manager would prefer to use a chirrup handle for example, the audience prefers Facebook as an online means of marketing. knave 81.3 Analyse the situation and identify campaign aim s1.3.1 Historical review and forecastThe historical stage setting of Tumelo Home for the Mentally Handicapped Children the home was opened in 1996 by Dr. Moses and Mrs. Orina Thindisa when Mr. Moses saw the many a(prenominal) difficulties faced by the parents and families of these incapacitate children. Driven by a love for the children in need, the facility was open in tusk Park, Midrand. While it was originally opened as a centre for the children during daytime working hours, many of the parents abandoned their children and were never heard from again, leaving the two founders in a difficult situation, yet they persevered and the home operates on a 24 hour radical ever since. It now houses 32 children from which about seventy per cent are either orphaned, abandoned and previously abused. Since this is the old home for children with special needs, the waiting inclining contains around 250 applicants, coming from further afield than Ivory Park. Tumelo Home for the Mentally Han dicapped Childrens forecast is to therefore gain enough funds to scatter the home to cater for the many needs of so many special children that still need the attention, facilities and activities that they do not receive unless admitted.1.3.2 Social, political and economic environment(a) The social environment is very supportive on the home as the community volunteers, looks after the security of the facility and helps out when possible. (b) The political environment affects the home as the Tumelo Home for the Mentally Handicapped Children is funded by grants from thegovernment currently. Parents of the children residing within the homes walls are asked to pay R500.00- which is given to them by the government as childrens grants. (c) The economic environment does affect Tumelo Home for the Mentally Handicapped Children as shortage of jobs results in that some of the parents neglect to pay their fee and rather use the government grants for themselves, leaving the home at a loss, whi lst facing food and other cost increases.1.3.3 CompetitorsTumelo Home for the Mentally Handicapped Children does not bear any competitors and have children from afar as Alexandria and Soweto needing space due to this lack of competition.1.3.4 Describe the organization and its cultureTumelo Home for the Mentally Handicapped Children is extremely invigorated and the interior is cheerful and bright. It is clearly a place well taken care of and the caretakers truly have a passion for the well-being of the children. Culturally, the community has commit to the centre and looks out for the security of the grounds, are regular volunteers and help out where they can, leaving an impression that this facility is very family and community orientated. Please refer to APPENDIXES D, E, F, G, H, I, J, K, L, and M for photographs of the organisation.1.3.5 Identify three issues based on the research results and situation analysis that are relevant for the campaign (a) There is not broad awareness about Tumelo Home for the Mentally Handicapped Children, leaving the home in dire need of financial sponsorship with no feasible way of gaining it. (b) Businesses that are interested in supporting a non-profit organisation all indicated that they required more information about the organisation to investigate whether or not it is worth while. (c) Local media coverage does not extend out the community, leaving the Tumelo Home for the Mentally Handicapped Children as another non-profit organisation that hardly anyone pays attention to. 1.3.6 Three broad oecumenic aims for the campaign(a) The first phase of this communication campaign would therefore be to raise awareness about the Tumelo Home for the Mentally Handicapped Children. Time put up throughout the campaign- April 2013 to December 2013.(b) The second phase would then be to revamp all previous internal advertisement and marketing to ensure that the corporate physique is the same throughout in order for credible businesses to take an active interest and lustrous partnership. Time limit would be 4 months. (c) As the 3rd and final phase of this campaign, this aim would be to do viral marketing about Tumelo Home for the Mentally Handicapped Children where all media coverage would go further afield than just locally in Ivory Park by the end of 2013.2 PHASE 2 CREATE2.1 Stipulate the communication problem or opportunity(According to Angelopulo and Barker, 2013 461-469)2.1.1 Formulate the main communication problem or opportunity As there is not a large awareness about the Tumelo Home for the Mentally Handicapped Children, fundraising is difficult and needs to be addressed.2.1.2 The need to conduct this campaignWithout funding, the Tumelo Home for the Mentally Handicapped Children will fail, leaving thirty-two children disadvantaged and hundreds of other challenged children on the waiting list without hope for a better life.2.1.3 What the campaign aims to achieveTo raise awareness amongst Pretoria busines s owners that are potential sponsors and donors.2.2 Define strengths, weaknesses, opportunities, and threats 2.2.1 Describe three audience characteristicsThe audiences needs are to have an understanding of what the non-profit organisation does so that they can decide whether their company will be a suitable match.The audiences perceptions of Tumelo Home for the Mentally Handicapped Children will influence whether or not they are willing to donate based on previous knowledge. Attitudes of the audience in terms of donating to non-profit organisations depend on any dealing in the past with charities and how their money was used.2.2.2 Define the needs of the audienceThe audience needs to know more about Tumelo Home for the Mentally Handicapped Children. They need to know what their money will be used for specifically. They need to have an open, two-way communication channel with the organisation. They need to be constantly updated and reminded about these childrens needs through the med ia.2.2.3 SWOT analysisAccording to Angelopulo and Barker, (2013322), the SWOT analysis is of the organisation itself- where the strengths and weaknesses are internal factors, with external categories being the opportunities and threats. (a) StrengthsTumelo Home for the Mentally Handicapped Children has access to basic services namely electricity, water sanitation and a doctors room/surgery next door. They are fully supported by the surrounding community of Ivory Park. Their facilities contains two fully furnish dormitories, stimulation area, equipped kitchen and office, an inviting reception area, playground for the children, as well as a large hall that can be used multi-purposively.(b) WeaknessesThe home needs more physio equipment for needed stimulation for the children. They do not have sufficient rehabilitation and medical equipment. They need to develop an adequate stimulation programme that meets the needs of the various age groups. Need a trained physiotherapist and speech therapist.(c) OpportunitiesThe facility contains a large enough area for care-giver training for current employees as well as trainees. They can develop their service centre into a training centre for young people with mental and physical disabilities.(d) ThreatsSome parents do not support their children, leaving the home struggling to cover the extra costs that should have been taken care of. As there is a low awareness level, people further afield from Ivory Park rarely donate.(e) ProblemAs the area has no other facility to help take in these children, Tumelo Home for the Mentally Handicapped Children is the only safe place, leaving it in high demand, with too little space to accommodate such a high intake.2.3 Determine the campaign topicThe help children that are abandoned, abused, orphaned and handicapped campaign will promote awareness and raise funds amongst various target audiences.2.4 Formulate strategic communication objectives2.4.1 To raise awareness through various media about Tumelo Home for the Mentally Handicapped Children throughout the campaign- April 2013 to December 2013. 2.4.2 To educate the target audience about the needs of Tumelo Home for the Mentally Handicapped Children throughout the communication campaign running from April 2013 to December 2013.2.4.3 To raise funds for the Tumelo Home for the Mentally Handicapped Children by spreading knowledge about their needs through different communication mediums.2.5 Create the communication message2.5.1 Formulate the oversize nousThe help children that are abandoned, abused, orphaned and handicappedcampaign is designed to raise awareness and increase funding for the Tumelo Home for the Mentally Handicapped Children by targeting mainly Pretoria based business owners who can donate significantly.2.5.2 Message approachThe approach used is emotional as the Tumelo Home for the Mentally Handicapped Children are in need for care and support, and no rational reasoning can put a price limit on that. I t will also appeal to the business public relations departments as they should want their community to perceive them as giving and caring for the children of the community, which will also benefit them.2.5.3 divergent ways of presenting your messageTheoretically the information produced will be emotional yet contain factual, demonstrative and testimonial information about Tumelo Home for the Mentally Handicapped Children. The billboard is a short message appealing emotionally to passers-by to put themselves in the childrens place, while he Facebook advert contains factual information about the children and their need for funding. The poster is eye-catching and more a demonstration on how would you feel if you had to rely on the support of others, leaving the newspaper advertisement as testimonial of the trials faced by these children and creates awareness of their funding dilemma.2.5.4 Communication mixThe use of the homes own logo design is the most specific and best way to portra y its internal communication as its marketing remains consistent in every form of media used. Billboard advertising is an excellent medium to portray an integrated internal communication of the Tumelo Home for the Mentally Handicapped Children.Page 14Facebook adverts are an online communication tool specifically aimed at online users in a company. visors integrate different element of emotional aspects that appeal to people, leaving them wanting to help in any waypossible. newsprint advertisements is a traditional marketing tool that also contains a link for further information online if wanted.2.6 Select the media2.6.1 Medium one billboard(a) This medium was selected because it will reach a larger target audience subconsciously, and business owners who are looking to contribute to charities will remember the billboard. (b) It contributes to internal desegregation through pull ahead Hundreds of people driving daily.Frequency Everyday on the N1 North.Impact Passengers will read it and interest will be created, while drivers can glimpse it and hopeful awareness for later research to be done will result.2.6.2 Medium two Facebook advert(a) This medium was selected as many internet users have a Facebook accounts and adverts online will reach people all over the world who may pass it on to their employers seeking a non-profit organisation to donate to. (b) It contributes to internal integration throughReach Everyone online with Facebook will receive it.Frequency Every 30 minutes to pop up.Impact People will see this advert and greater awareness will be created and hopefully more interest will occur, resulting in a viral word of mouth spread over the internet, perchance reaching people who can help.2.6.3 Medium three posters (at universities)(a) This medium was selected as many university students are encouraged to be more actively involved in the community and in charities, as well as may raise further awareness in future projects. Page 15(b) It contributes to i nternal integration throughReach All students on campus will see it.Frequency Students to and fro from classes.Impact Students who are caring will pay attention to these posters and will further raise awareness about the home and may even help themselves.2.6.4 Medium four newspaper advertisement(a) This medium was selected as many business owners based in Pretoria read these newspapers for general knowledge about the country and daily issues that may influence the running of their businesses. (b) It contributes to internal integration throughReach All Sunday Times and Pretoria News newspaper readers. Frequency Every day and every Sunday.Impact Readers will gain increased awareness to enable them to enact further.2.7 Produce the communication material(For the purpose of sightedness the media activities as a whole, they will start on the next page.)Page 162.7.1 Design the four activitiesBillboardHOW WOULD YOU FEEL IF YOU WERE APART OF THE Tumelo Home for the Mentally Handicapped Chil dren Abandoned, Abused, Orphaned, Handicapped stand by THEM, HELP YOURSELFFacebook AdvertThe Tumelo Home for the Mentally Handicapped Children is a place of safety for disabled and abused children. They need support from the South African community to ensure that these abandoned, abused, orphaned and handicapped children turn tail on receiving the supportive lifestyle they need and deserve. Help now through donating for this great cause of keeping our children safe. YOU can be that difference in THEIR livesPosterTumelo Home for the Mentally Handicapped Children Awareness Campaign Fundraising for CHILDREN in need. How would YOU feel-ABANDONEDORPHENEDABUSEDHANDICAPPEDYOU would also want a place of refugeHELP NOW- contact Mr.Solly Khuthama on (011) 261 1868Newspaper AdvertisementTumelo Home for the Mentally Handicapped Children is a non-profit organisation that is in ever constant need of support from the South African community. Will YOU be the difference in the lives of these abando ned, abused, orphaned and handicapped children?2.7.2 Explain how each activity contributes to the big idea Each media contains the phrase help children that are abandoned, abused, orphaned and handicapped which is the big idea for this communication campaign. 1. The billboards meaning to catch passers-bys attention to raise awareness for the children of Tumelo Home for the Mentally Handicapped Children. Byhelping them, you help yourself be a better person by societys standards. 2. The Facebook advert is aimed at creating awareness about funding needed for the Tumelo Home for the Mentally Handicapped Children and how these special children need help for the readers. 3. The poster helps raise awareness and educates viewers of the big idea through its catch phrases emboldened, catching attention to remind people of others needs other than their own. 4. The newspaper advertisement contributes to the big idea as it appeals emotionally through the catch phrase, asking people to help donat e to ensure the childrens safety.2.8 Proof of authenticityPlease refer to APPENDIX CSOURCES CONSULTEDBooksAdvertising and creation Relations. 2012. Only Study Guide for COM3708. Pretoria UNISA Advertising and Public Relations, COM3708, Tutorial Letter 101/3/2013. Department of Communication Sciences. Pretoria UNISA Angelopulo, GC & Barker, R. (eds). 2013. Integrated organisational communication. Lansdowne Juta. CMNALLE Tutorial Letter 301/4/2013APPENDIX ADear Miss Mpho and Mr. Solly,I wish to confirm the telephonic conversation and the subsequent meeting that took place.During the interview which took place on Thursday, 4th April 2013, at your offices, the following was agreed upon- The communication campaign will focus specifically on raising awareness about your organization and its need for urgent funding.This will be accomplished through the following proposed steps- a Your organization and where this community is situated.b Creating the proposed campaign through identifying th e different key issues faced by the Tumelo Children Home. c 4x media draft versions to create public awareness of your plight.As I am a student of UNISA, I will not be implementing my research unfortunately, yet your organization will receive exposure through the interviews and questionnaires I will conduct during this time, about peoples and companies awareness of your home, and its many needs associated with the care of handicapped children.You are welcome to use any of my planning and research to assist you in any way you deem fit. If you do decide to use any of my suggestions and recommendations, I would be grateful if you would let me know what section/syou have used and the outcomes thereof as this will help me with future work.Any photography used in this portfolio is strictly confidential and anonymous, with only the marker/s of UNISA, my internal lecturer and myself seeing them, and will in no way be used in any manner unbefitting and will be used only with your consent. co nvey you again for your willingness to work together with me and the sharing of your information. I will send the finished product if you so wish.I look forward to working with you both and if you have any other questions or concerns, please do not hesitate to contact me. Please accept my grateful thanks for consenting to see me and for the time spend discussing my proposals.APPENDIX BN.P.O. 016 874The following questionnaire is specifically for the use of a UNISA portfolio about an integrated communication campaign based on the Tumelo Home for the Mentally Handicapped Children. The recorded results are completely anonymous. Please circle the correct option where relevant.What is your position in your company?Owner DirectorAPPENDIX CN.P.O. 016 874PBO 93001854108 April 2013To Whom It May ConcernCara GraterTumelo Home is situated in Ivory Park settlement .MIDRAND, it is a home for profound mentally and physically handicapped children, 75% of our children are either abandoned, orphaned or abused from home, at present Tumelo Home is catering for 100%, black and disadvantaged children with severe mental retardation and physical disabilities.TUMELO HOME has created 20 job opportunities to previously disadvantaged persons (amongst them is 17 women, 1 person with disability).We hereby authorise the above student to use our organisation to do her school project. She is a warm person and dedicated. During our interview, she was coming up with exciting ideas and she showed initiative. We were please to have met her and are very honoured to help her, so that she can help us.As an organisation, we feel that the communication campaign will be helpful because as an NGO we need exposure and for people to know about the kind of people we are taking care of, to learn about their condition and be able to appreciate them. So we feel like this project is going to be a great help to us.M.S. KhuthamaManager Rev. H.S. Mpshe Chairman Dr. G.M. Thindisa Dep-chairman T.M Malatji Treasure r E. shadung Secretary R. MadibogoDep-Secretary B. Matlala, M.B. Lefophana Page 25N.P.O. 016 874PBO 930018541For any further information, please do not hesitate to contact us.Yours sincerely,Mr. Solly. M .KhuthamaTUMELO HOME MANAGERM.S. KhuthamaManager Rev. H.S. Mpshe Chairman Dr. G.M. Thindisa Dep-chairman T.M Malatji Treasurer E. shadung Secretary R. MadibogoDep-Secretary B. Matlala, M.B. Lefophana Page 26APPENDIX D EAbove View of Ivory Park- MidrandBelow Close up of Ivory Park- Midrand

Saturday, May 25, 2019

General Knowledge

http//www. rsarchive. org/Books/ SUPERSENSIBLE KNOWLEDGE Its Secrecy in the Past and Publication in our Time THERE atomic number 18 two run intos hence the soul whitethorn gain an understand for the mode of cognition to which the supersensible argonnas will open out. The iodine originates in the science of constitution the other, in the Mystical buzz off w hereby the untrained ordinary apprisedness contrives to penetrate into the supersensible r each(prenominal).Both confront the soul of hu homoity with barriers of surviveledge barriers he quarternot cross till he thr matchless open for himself the portals which by their rattling nerve internal knowledge, and ordinary Mysticism as well, essentialiness h octogenarian fast closed. innate information pass alongs inevitably to certain(a) conceptions about reality, which ar equal a stone w alone to the deeper forces of the soul and yet, this lore itself is cater little to remove them. He who fails to expre ssion the impact, has not yet c anyed to breeding the deeper wishs of knowledge in his soul.He may then come to believe that it is impossible in any case for Man to attain any other than the natural-scientific edition of knowledge. There is, however, a definite cede it off in Self-knowledge whereby one weans oneself of this belief. This be consists in the insight that the squ ar of Natural acquaintance would be dissolved into thin air if we move to fathom the above-named conceptions with the methods of Natural Science itself.If the conceptions of Natural Science are to remain spread out before the soul, these limiting conceptions essential be go forth within the field of consciousness intact, without attempting to approach them with a deeper insight. There are domainy of them here I will still mention two of the to the highest degree familiarMatterandForce. Recent ripenings in scientific theory may or may not be replacing these particular conceptions the fact body t hat Natural Science must invariably lead to some conception or another of this kind, impenetr equal to its take in methods of knowledge.To the check of soul, of which I am here speaking, these limiting conceptions appear like a reflecting surface which the gentle homo soul must place before it while Natural Science itself is like the picture, do plain with the mirrors help. Any attempt to treat the limiting conceptions themselves by ordinary scientific kernel is, as it were, to smash the mirror, and with the mirror broken, Natural Science itself dissolves a sort. More over, this make out reveals the emptiness of both talk about Things-in-themselves, f whatsoever kind, behind the phenomena of Nature. He who seeks for much(prenominal) Things-in-themselves is like a man who wides to break the looking-glass, hoping to see what in that location is behind the reflecting surface to cause his image to appear. It goes without saying that the validity of such(prenominal) an pay b ack of soul toiletnot be turn up, in the ordinary mavin of the word, with the habitual thoughts of handday Natural Science. For the transmit will be, what kind of an home(a) start out does the process of the proof call forth in us and this must impoverishments transcend the summary proof.With intimate start in this sense, we must apprehend the question How is it that the soul is forced to confront these barriers of knowledge in gild to have before it the phenomena of Nature? Mature self-knowledge brings us an answer to this question. We then perceive which of the forces of mans soul partakes in the erection of these barriers to knowledge. It is none other than the force of soul which exonerates man capable, within the realism of sense, of efflorescenceLoveout of his inner being.The faculty of Love is somehow rooted in the kind administration and the very subject which affords to man the power of love of sympathy and antipathy with his environment of sense, takes away from his cognition of the things and processes of Nature the possibility to make transparent such pillars of Reality as Matter and Force. To the man who hindquarters fellowship himself in true self-knowledge, on the one hand in the act of knowing Nature, and on the other hand in the unfolding of Love, this peculiar property of the human organisation becomes straightway apparent.We must, however, beware of mis get winding this intuition by lapsing once more into a way of thought which, within Natural Science itself, is no doubt inevitable. Thus it would be a misconstruction to assume, that an insight into the true essence of the things and processes of Nature is withheld from man because he lacks the organisation for such insight. The opposite is the case. Nature becomes sense-perceptible to man by with(predicate) the very fact that his being is capable of Love. For a being incapable of Love within the field of sense, the whole human picture of Nature would dissolve away .It is not Nature who on account of his organisation reveals just her extraneous aspect. No it is man, who, by that force of his organisation which makes him in another perplexity capable of Love, is placed in a position to erect before his soul images and forms of Reality whereby Nature reveals herself to him. Through the experience above-described the fact emerges, that the scientific frontiers of knowledge depend on the whole way in which man, as a sense-endowed being, is placed within this knowledge domain of physiological reality. His day-dream of Nature is of a kind, appropriate to a being who is capable of Love.He would have to tear the faculty of Love out of his inner breeding if he wished no longer to be faced with limits in his science of Nature. But in so doing he would destroy the very force whereby Nature is made manifest to him. The real object of his quest for knowledge is not, by the same methods which he applies in his outlook upon Nature, to remove the li mitations of that outlook. No, it is something al together varied, and once this has been perceived, man will no longer try to penetrate into a supersensible sphere through the kind of knowledge which is effective in Natural Science.Rather will he tell himself, that to produce the supersensible domain an altogether different activity of knowledge must be evolved than that which he applies to the science of Nature. Many people, more or less consciously cognisant of the above experience of soul, knead away from Natural Science when it is a question of opening the supersensible domain, and seek to penetrate into the latter by methods which are normally called Mystical. They think that what is veiled to outwardly order mickle may be revealed by plunging into the depths of ones own being.But a mature self-knowledge reveals in the inner life as well a frontier of knowledge. In the field of the senses the faculty of Love erects, as it were, an impenetrable background whereat Nature is reflected in the inner life of man the power of storehouseerects a like background. The same force of soul, which makes the human being capable of Memory, prevents his penetrating, in his inner being, down to that experience which would enable him to meet on this inward path the supersensible reality for which he seeks.Invariably, along this path, he reaches completely to that force of soul which recalls to him in Memory the experiences he has undergone through his somatic disposition in the past. He never penetrates into the region where with his own supersensible being he is rooted in a supersensible globe. For those who fail to see this, mystical pursuits will give rise to the worst of illusions. For in the course of life, the human being receives into his inner life untold experiences, of which in the receiving he is not soundy conscious. But the Memory retains what is thus half-consciously or subconsciously experience.Long afterwardswards it frequently emerges into consciousness in moods, in shades of whim and the like, if not in clear conceptions. Nay more, it a great deal undergoes a change, and comes to consciousness in preferably a different form from that in which it was go through originally. A man may then believe himself confronted by a supersensible reality arising from the inner being of the soul, whereas, in fact, it is barely an satellite experience transformed an experience called forth originally by the cosmea of sense which comes before his mental vision.He alone is preserved from such illusions, who recognises that even on a mystic path man elicitnot penetrate into the supersensible domain so long as he applies methods of knowledge dependent on the bodily temper which is rooted in the valet of sense. Even as our picture of Nature depends for its universe on the faculty of Love, so does the immediate consciousness of the human Self depend upon the power of Memory. The same force of the soul, endowing man in the ph ysical world with the Self-consciousness that is bound to the bodily nature, stands in the way to obstruct his inner union with the supersensible world.Thus, even that which is often considered Mysticism provides no way into the supersensible realms of existence. For him who would penetrate with full conscious clarity of understanding into the supersensible domain, the two experiences above described are, however, preparatory stages. Through them he recognises that man is shut off from the supersensible world by the very thing which places him, as a self-conscious being, in the midst of Nature. Now one king easily conclude from this, that man must altogether cast off the effort to gain knowledge of the Supersensible.Nor can it be denied that many who are loath to face the painful issue, abstain from working their way through to a clear experience of the two experiences. Cherishing a certain dimness of cognizance on these matters, they any give themselves up to the belief that t he limitations of Natural Science may be transcended by some intellectual and philosophic exercise or else they devote themselves to Mysticism in the ordinary sense, avoiding the full enlightenment as to the nature of Self-consciousness and Memory which would reveal its insufficiency.But to one who has undergone them and reached a certain clarity withal, these very experiences will open out the possibility and prospect of true supersensible knowledge. For in the course of them he finds that even in the ordinary action of human consciousness on that point are forces holding sway within the soul, which are not bound to the physical organisation forces which are in no way subject to the conditions whereon the faculties of Love and Memory within this physical organisation depend. One of these forces reveals itself in belief.True, it remains unnoticed in the ordinary conscious life at that placefore there are even many philosophers who deny it. But the denial is due to an imperfect se lf-observation. There is something at work in Thought which does not come into it from the faculty of Memory. It is something that vouches to us for the correctness of a present thought, not when a antecedent thought emerging from the memory sustains it, merely when the correctness of the present thought isexperienced straight off. This experience escapes the every-day consciousness, because man completely spends the force in question for his life of thought-filled information.In apprehension permeated by Thought this force is at work. But man, perceiving, imagines that the perception alone is vouching for the correctness of what he apprehends by an activity of soul where ThoughtandPerception in reality alship canal flow together. And when he lives in Thought alone, abstracted from perceptions, it is just an activity of Thought which finds its supports in Memory. In this abstracted Thought the physical organism is cooperative. For the every-day consciousness, an activity of Th ought unsubjected to the bodily organism is only present while man is in the act of Sense-perception.Sense-perception itself depends upon the organism. But the thinking activity, contained in and co-operating with it, is a stringently supersensible atom in which the bodily organism has no share. In it the human soul rises out of the bodily organism. As soon as man becomes distinctly, separately conscious of this Thinking in the act of Perception, he knows by direct experience that he has himself as a aliment soul, quite unaffiliatedly of the bodily nature. This is mans first experience of himself as a supersensible soul-being, arising out of an evolved self-knowledge. The same experience is there unconsciously in every act of perception.We need only sharpen our selfobservation so as to Observe the fact in the act of Perception a supersensible element reveals itself. Once it is thus revealed, this first, faint hint of an experience of the soul within the Supersensible can be evo lved, as follows In keep, musing practice, man unfolds a Thinking wherein two activities of the soul flow together, that is to say that which lives in the ordinary consciousness in Sense-perception, and that which is active in ordinary Thought. The meditative life thus becomes an intensified activity of Thought, receiving into itself the force that is otherwise worn out(p) in Perception.Our Thinking in itself must grow so strong, that it works with the same vivid quality which is otherwise only there in Sense-perception. Without perception by the senses we must call to life a Thinking which, unsupported by memories of the past, experiences in the immediate present a content of its own, such as we otherwise only can derive from Sense-perception. From the Thinking that co-operates in perception, this meditative action of the soul derives its free and conscious quality, its inherent certainty that it receives no long-winded content raying into the soul from unconscious organic reg ions.A visionary life of whatsoever kind is the very antithesis of what is here in operateed. By self-observation we must become thoroughly and understandably familiar with the condition of soul in which we are in the act of perception through any one of the senses. In this state of soul, fully alive(predicate) that the content of our ideation does not arise out of the activity of the bodily organism, we must learn to experience ideas which are called forth in consciousness without external perceptions, tho as are those of which we are conscious in ordinary life when engaged in reflective thought, abstracted from the raise world. As to the right ways of developing this meditative practice, detailed indications are disposed(p) in the bookcognition of the Higher Worlds and its Attainmentand in several of my other writings. ) In evolving the meditative life above-described, the human soul rises to the conscious feeling perception of itself, as of a supersensible being nonparasiti c of the bodily organisation. This is mans first experience of himself as a supersensible Being and it leads on to a second stage in supersensible self-knowledge.At the former stage he can only be aware that heisa supersensible Being at the second he feels this Being filled with real content, even as the I of ordinary argus-eyed life is felt by means of the bodily organisation. It is of the utmost importance to realise that the transition from the one stage to the other takes place quite independently of any co-operation from outside(a) the souls domain namely from the mere organic life. If we experienced the transition, in relation to our own bodily nature, any differently from the process of drawing a logical consequence for example, it would be a visionary experience, not what is intended here.The process here intended differs from the act of drawing logical conclusions, not in respect of its blood to the bodily nature, but in quite another regard namely in the consciousness that a supersensible, purely spectral content is entering the feeling and perception of the Self. The kind of meditative life hitherto described gives rise to the supersensible self-consciousness. But this self-consciousness would be left without any supersensible environment if the above form of meditation were unaccompanied by another. We come to an understanding of this latter kind by turning our self-observation to the activity of theWill.In every-day life the activity of the Will is consciously direct to external actions. There is, however, another concomitant expression of the Will to which the human being pays little conscious attention. It is the activity of Will which carries him from one stage of development to another in the course of life. For not only is he filled with different contents of soul day after day his soul-life itself, on each succeeding day, has evolved out of his soul-life of the day before. The driving force in this evolving process is the Will, which in this field of its activity remains for the most part unconscious.Mature self-knowledge can, however, raise this Will, with all its peculiar quality, into the conscious life. When this is done, man comes to the perception of a life of Will which has absolutely nothing to do with any processes of a sense-perceptible external world, but is directed solely to the inner evolution of the soul independent of this world. Once it is known to him, he learns by degrees to enter into the living essence of this Will, just as in the former kind of meditative life he entered into the fusion of the souls experiences of Thinking and Perception.And the conscious experience in this element of Will expands into the experience of a supersensible external world. Evolved in the way above described, and transplanted now into this element of Will, the supersensible self-consciousness finds itself in a supersensible environment, filled with apparitional Beings and events. While the supersensible Thinking leads to a self-consciousness independent of the power of Memory which is bound to the bodily nature, the supersensible Willing comes to life in such a way as to be permeated through and through by a apparitionalised faculty of Love.It is this faculty of Love which enables the supersensible self-consciousness of man to perceive and range of mountains the supersensible external world. Thus the power of supersensible knowledge is established by a self-consciousness which eliminates the ordinary Memory and lives in the intuitive perception of the uncanny world through the power of Love made spiritual. Only by realising this essence of the supersensible faculty of knowledge, does one become able to understand the real meaning of mans knowledge of Nature. In effect, the knowledge of Nature is inherently connected with what is being evolved in man within this physical world of sense.It is in this world that man incorporates, into his spiritual Being, Self-consciousness and the faculty of Love. Once he has instilled these two into his nature, he can carry them with him into the super sensible world. In supersensible perception, the ordinary power of Memory is eliminated. Its place is taken by an immediate vision of the past a vision for which the past appears as we look backward in spiritual observation, just as for sense-perception the things we pass by as we walk along appear when we turn round to look behind us.Again the ordinary faculty of Love is bound to the physical organism. In conscious supersensible experience, its place is taken by a power of Love made spiritual, which is to say, a power of perception. It may already be seen, from the above verbal description, that supersensible experience takes place in a mood of soul which must be held apart, in consciousness, from that of ordinary Perception, Thinking, Feeling and Willing.The two ways of looking out upon the world must be kept apart by the roll control of man himself, just as in another sphere the waking consciousness is kept apart from the dream life. He who lets play the picture-complexes of his dreams into his waking life becomes a listless and raving mad fellow, abstracted from realities. He, on the other hand, who holds to the belief that the essence of causal births experienced in waking life can be extended into the life of dreams, endows the dream-pictures with an imagined reality which will make it impossible for him to experience their real nature.So with the mode of thought which governs our outlook upon Nature, or of inner experience which determines ordinary Mysticism he who lets them play into his supersensible experience, will not behold the supersensible, but weave himself in figments of the mind, which, far from bringing him nearer to it, will burn down him off from the high world he seeks. A man who will not hold his experience in the supersensible apart from his experience in the world of the physical senses, will mar the voguish and unembarrassed out look upon Nature which is the true basis for a healthy sojourn in this earthly life.Moreover, he will permeate with the force of spiritual perception the faculty of Love that is connected with the bodily nature, thus tending to bring it into a deceptive alliance with the physical experience. All that the human being experiences and achieves within the field of sense, receives its true illumination an illumination which the deepest needs of the soul require through the science of things that are only to be experienced supersensibly. Yet must the latter be held separate in consciousness from the experience in the world of sense.It must crystallise our knowledge of Nature, our ethical and social life yet so, that the illumination always proceeds from a sphere of experience apart. Mediately, through the attunement of the human soul, the Supersensible must indeed shed its light upon the Sensible. For if it did not do so, the latter would be relegated to darkness of thought, chaotic w ilfulness of instinct and desire. Many human beings, well knowing this relationship which has to be maintained in the soul between the experience of the supersensible and that of the world of sense, hold that the supersensible knowledge must on no account be given full publicity.It should remain, so they consider, the secret knowledge of a few, who have attained by strict self-discipline the power to establish and maintain the true relationship. such guardians of supersensible knowledge base their opinion on the very true assertion that a man who is in any way inadequately prepared for the high(prenominal) knowledge will feel an irresistible impulsion to mingle the Supersensible with the Sensible in life and that he will inevitably thus call forth, twain in himself and others, all the ill effects which we have here characterised as the result of such confusion.On the other hand believing as they do, and with good reason, that mans outlook upon Nature must not be left to grope in utter darkness, nor his life to spend itself in blind forces of instinct and desire, they have founded self-contained and closed Societies, or Occult Schools, within which human beings properly prepared are guided stage by stage to supersensible discovery. Of such it then becomes the problem to pour the fruits of their knowledge into life, without, however, exposing the knowledge itself to publicity.In past epochs of human evolution this idea was undoubtedly justified. For the propensity above described, leading to the vilify of supersensible knowledge, was then the only thing to be considered, and against it there stood no other circumstance to call for publication of the higher knowledge. It might at most be contended that the superiority of those initiated into the higher knowledge gave into their hands a mighty power to rule over those who had no such knowledge.None the less, an enlightened reading of the course of History will convince us that such conflux of power into th e hands of a few, fitted by self-discipline to wield it, was indeed necessary. In present time, however meaning present in the wider sense the evolution of mankind has reached a point whenceforward it becomes not only impossible but harmful to prolong the former custom. The irresistible impulsion to misuse the higher knowledge is now opposed by other factors, making the at any rate partial publication of such knowledge a matter of necessity, and calculated also to remove the ill effects of the above tendency.Our knowledge of Nature has assumed a form wherein it beats perpetually, in a destructive way, against its own barriers and limitations. In many branches of Science, the laws and generalisations in which man finds himself obliged to clothe certain of the facts of Nature, are in themselves of such a kind as to call his attention to his own supersensible powers. The latter press forward into the conscious life of the soul. In former ages, the knowledge of Nature which was gene rally accessible had no such effect.Through Natural Science, however, in its present form expanding as it is in ever widening circles mankind would be led astray in either of two directions, if a publication of supersensible knowledge were not now to take place. Either the possibility of a supersensible world-outlook would be repudiated altogether and with growing vehemence and this would right away result in an artificial repression of supersensible faculties which the time is actually calling forth.Such repression would make it more and more impossible for man to see his own Being in a true light. Emptiness, chaos and dissatisfaction of the inner life, instability of soul, perversity of will and, in the sequel, even physical degeneration and illhealth would be the outcome. Or else the supersensible faculties-uncontrolled by conscious knowledge of these things-would break out in a wild tangle of obtuse, unconscious, undirected forces of cognition, and the life of knowledge would degenerate in a chaotic aggregate of nebulous conceptions.This would be to create a world of scientific phantoms, which, like a curtain, would bedevil the true supersensible world from the spiritual eye of man. For either of these aberrations, a proper publication of supersensible knowledge is the only remedy. As to the impulse to abuse such knowledge in the way above described, it can be counteracted in our time, as follows the training of thought which modern Natural Science has involved can be fruitfully employed to clothe in words the truths that point towards the supersensible.Itself, this Science of Nature cannot penetrate into the supersensible world but it lends the human mind an aptitude for combinations of thought whereby the higher knowledge can be so show that the irresistible impulsion to misuse it need not arise. The thought-combinations of the Nature-knowledge of former times were more pictorial, less inclined to the domain of pure Thought. Supersensible perceptio ns, clothed in them, emotional up without his being conscious of it those very instincts in the human being which tend towards misuse.This being said, it cannot on the other hand be emphasised too strongly that he who gives out supersensible knowledge in our time will the better fulfil his responsibilities to mankind the more he contrives to express this knowledge in forms of thought borrowed from the modern Science of Nature. For the receiver of knowledge thus imparted will then have to apply, to the overcoming of certain difficulties of understanding, faculties of soul which would otherwise remain inactive and tend to the above misuse.The popularising of supersensible knowledge, so frequently desired by overzealous and misguided people, should be avoided. The truly earnest seeker does not call for it it is but the banale, lowbrow craving of persons indolent in thought. In the ethical and social life as well, humanity has reached a stage of development which makes it impossible to exclude all knowledge of the supersensible from public life and thought. In former epochs the ethical and social instincts contained within them spiritual guiding forces, inherited from primaeval ages of mankind.Such forces tended instinctively to a familiarity life which answered also to the needs of individual soul. But the inner life of man has grown more conscious than in former epochs. The spiritual instincts have thus been forced into the background. The Will, the impulses of men must now be guided consciously, lest they become vagrant and unstable. That is to say, the individual, by his own insight, must be in a position to illumine the life in the physical world of sense by the knowledge of the supersensible, piritual Being of man. Conceptions formed in the way of natural-scientific knowledge cannot enter effectively into the conscious guiding forces of the ethical and social life. Destined as it is within its own domain to bear the most precious fruits, Natural Scien ce will be led into an absolutely fatal error if it be not perceived that the mode of thought which dominates it is quite unfitted to open out an understanding of, or to give impulses for, the moral and social life of humanity.In the domain of ethical and social life our conception of underlying principles, and the conscious guidance of our action, can only thrive when illumined from the aspect of the Supersensible. Between the rise of a highly evolved Natural Science, and present-day developments in the human life of Will with all the underlying impulses and instincts there is indeed a deep, significant connection.The force of knowledge that has gone into our science of Nature, is derived from the former spiritual content of mans impulses and instincts. From the fountain-head of supersensible Realities, the latter must now be supplied with fresh impulsive forces. We are living in an age when supersensible knowledge can no longer remain the secret possession of a few. No, it must become the common property of all, in whom the meaning of life within this age is stirring as a very condition of their souls existence.In the unconscious depths of the souls of men this need is already working, far more widespread than many people dream. And it will grow, more and more insistently, to the demand that the science of the Supersensible shall be treated on a like footing with the science of Nature. Knowledge of the State Between Death and a New Birth The following thoughts are intended as apothegmatical sketches of a domain of knowledge that, in the form in which is it characterised here, is almost entirely rejected by the culture of our time.The aphoristic form has been chosen in order to give some idea of the fundamental character of this field of knowledge, and to show at least in one direction the prospects for life which it opens up. The speciate frame of an essay requires one to refer the reader to the literature of the subject for further information. The au thor is fully aware that precisely this form of presentation may easily be felt as presumptuous by many who, from the well-founded habits of thought of the culture of the day, must find what is here brought forward directly pposed to all that is scientific. It may be said in answer to this that the author, in spite of his spiritual-scientific orientation, believes that he can agree with every scientist in his high theme of the spirit and significance of scientific thinking. Only it seems clear to him that one can fully accept Natural Science without being thereby compelled to reject an independent Spiritual Science of the kind described here.A consequence of this relation to Natural Science will, at all events, be to guard true Spiritual Science from that amateurishness which is noticeable in many quarters to-day, and which ordinarily indulges the more presumptuously in phrases about the crude materialism of Natural Science the less the speakers are able to judge of the earnestnes s, rigour and scientific soundness of Natural Knowledge. The writer wished to make these introductory remarks because the brevity of the discussions in this article may possibly obscure from the reader his perspective towards these matters.He who speaks to-day of investigating the spiritual world encounters the sceptical objections of those whose habits of thought have been moulded by the outlook of Natural Science. His attention will be emaciated to the blessings which this outlook has brought for a healthy development of human life, by destroying the illusions of a learning which professed to follow purely spiritual modes of cognition. Now these sceptical objections can be quite intelligible to the spiritual police detective.Indeed it ought to be perfectly clear to him that any kind of spiritual investigation which finds itself in conflict with established ideas of Natural Science cannot rest on a sure foundation. A spiritual investigator with a feeling for, and an understandin g of the earnestness of scientific appendage, and insight into the achievements of Natural Knowledge for human life, will not wish to join the ranks of those who, from the standpoint of their spiritual sight, criticise lightly the limitations of scientists, and imagine their own standpoint so much the higher the more every kind of Natural Knowledge is lost for them in unfathomable depths.Natural Science and Spiritual Science could live in harmony if the former could rid itself of the erroneous belief that true spiritual investigation necessarily requires we human beings to reject attested knowledge of sensible reality and of the soul-life bound up with this. In this erroneous belief lies the source of innumerable misunderstandings which Spiritual Science has to encounter. Those who believe they stand, in their outlook on life, on the firm ground of Natural Science hold that the spiritual investigator is compelled by his point of good deal to reject their knowledge.But this is not really the case. Genuine spiritual investigation is in full pact with Natural Science. Thus spiritual investigation is not opposed on account of what it maintains, but for what people believe it could or must maintain. With regard to human soul life the scientific thinker must maintain that the soul activities which reveal themselves as thinking, feeling and impulsive, ought, for the acquisition of scientific knowledge, to be lionised without detriment in the same way as the phenomena of light or heat in the outer world of Nature.He must reject all ideas about the entity of the soul which do not arise from such unprejudiced observation, and from which all kinds of conclusions are then drawn about the indestructibility of the soul, and its connection with the spiritual world. It is quite understandable that such a thinker begins his study of the facts of soul-life asTheodor Ziehendoes in the first of his lectures on Physiological Psychology. He says The psychology which I shall put before you, is not that old psychology which attempted to investigate soul phenomena in a more or less speculative way.This psychology has long been abandoned by those given up to think scientifically. True spiritual investigation need not conflict with the scientific attitude which may he in such an avowal. And yet, among those who take this attitude as a result of their scientific habits of thought, the opinion will be almost universally held to-day that the specific results of spiritual investigation are to be regarded as unscientific.Of course one will not encounter everywhere this rejection, on grounds of principle, of the investigation of spiritual facts yet when specific results of such investigation are brought forward they will scarcely escape the objection that scientific thinking can do nothing with them. As a consequence of this,one can key out that there has recently grown up a science of the soul, forming its methods of investigation on the pattern of natural-sc ientific procedure, but unable to find the power to approach those highest questions which our inner need of knowledge must put when we turn our gaze to the fate of the soul.One investigates conscientiously the connection of soul phenomena with bodily processes, one tries to gain ideas on the way presentations associate and dissociate in the soul, how attention acts, how memory functions, what relation exists between thinking, feeling and willing but for the higher questions of soul-life the words of Franz Brentano remain true.This acute psychologist, though rooted in the mode of thinking of Natural Science, wrote The laws of association of ideas, of the development of convictions and opinions and of the genesis of pleasure and love would be anything but a true salary for the hopes of aPlatoor anAristotleof gaining certainty concerning the continued life of our better part after the dissolution of the body. And if the recent scientific mode of thinking really means excluding the q uestion of immortality, this exclusion would have great significance for psychology (seeNote 1).The fact is, that considerations which might tend in the direction of the hopes of a Plato and an Aristotle are avoided in recent psychological writings which wish to satisfy the demands of scientific thought. Now the spiritual investigator will not come into conflict with the mode of procedure of recent scientific psychology if he has an understanding of its vital nerve. He will have to admit that this psychology proceeds, in the main, along right lines yet as the study of the inner experiences of thinking, feeling and willing is concerned.Indeed his path of knowledge leads him to admit that thinking, feeling and willing reveal nothing that could fulfil the hopes of a Plato and an Aristotle if these activities are only studied as they are experienced in ordinary human life. But his path of knowledge also shows that in thinking, feeling and willing something lies transcendental which do es not become conscious in the course of ordinary life, but which can be brought to consciousness through inner soul exercises.In this spiritual entity of the soul, hidden from ordinary consciousness, is revealed what in it is independent of the life of the body and in this the relations of man to the spiritual world can be studied. To the spiritual investigator it appears just as impossible to fulfil the hopes of a Plato or an Aristotle in regard to the existence of the soul independent of bodily life by observe ordinary thinking, feeling and willing, as it is impossible to investigate in water the properties of hydrogen. To learn these one must first extract the hydrogen from the water by an appropriate procedure.So it is also necessary to separate from the everyday life of the soul (which it leads in connection with the body) that entity which is rooted in the spiritual world, if this entity is to be studied. The error which casts befogging misunderstandings in the way of Spirit ual Science lies in the almost general belief that knowledge about the higher questions of soul-life must be gained from a study of such facts of the soul as are already to be found in ordinary life. But no other knowledge results from these facts than that to which research, conducted on what are at present called scientific lines, can lead.On this account Spiritual Science can be no mere heeding of what is immediately present in the life of the soul. It must first lay bare, by inner processes in the life of the soul, the world of facts to be studied. To this end spiritual investigation applies soul processes which are attained in inner experience. Its field of research lies entirely within the inner life of the soul. It cannot make its experiences outwardly visible. Nevertheless they are not on that account less independent of personal caprice than the true results of Natural Science.They have nothing in common with mathematical truths except that they, too, cannot be proved by ou ter facts, but are proved for anyone who grasps them in inner perception. Like mathematical truths they can at the most be outwardly symbolised but not represented in their full content, for it is this that proves them. The essential point, which can easily be misunderstood, is, that on the path pursued by spiritual investigation a certain direction is given, by inner initiative, to the experiences of the soul, thereby calling out forces which otherwise remain unconscious as in a kind of soul sleep. The soul exercises which lead to this goal are described in detail in my books Knowledge of the Higher Worlds and its Attainment and Occult Science. It is only intended to indicate here what transpires in the soul when it subjects itself to such exercises). If the soul proceeds in this way it inserts as it were its inner life into the domain of spiritual reality. It opens to the spiritual world its organs of perception so formed, as the senses open outwardly to physical reality. One kind of such soul exercises consists in an intensive surrender to the process of thinking.One carries this surrender so far that one acquires the capacity of directing ones attention no longer to the thoughts present in thinking but solely to the activity of thinking itself. every kind of thought content then disappears from consciousness and the soul experiences herself consciously in the activity of thinking. Thinking then becomes transformed into a subtle inner act of will which is completely illuminated by consciousness. In ordinary thinking, thoughts live the process indicatedextinguishes the thought in thinking.The experience thus induced is a weaving in an inner activity of will which bears its reality within itself. The point is that the soul, by continued inner experience in this direction, may make itself as familiar with the purely spiritual reality in which it weaves as sense observation is with physical reality. As in the outer world a reality can only be known as such by experiencing it, so, too, in this inner domain. He who objects that what is inwardly real cannot be proved only shows that he has not yet grasped that we become convinced of an outer reality in no other way than by experiencing its existence together with our own.A healthy life has direct experience of the difference between a genuine perception in the outer world and a vision or hallucination in a similar way a healthily developed soul life can distinguish the spiritual reality it has approached from fantastic imagining and dreamy reverie. Thinking that has been developed in the manner stated perceives that it has freed itself from the soul force which ordinarily leads to memory. What is experienced in thinking which has become an inwardly experienced will-reality cannot be remembered in the direct form in which it presents itself.Thus it differs from what is experienced in ordinary thinking. What one has thought about an event is incorporated into memory. It can be brought up a gain in the further course of life. But the will-reality here described must be attained anew, if it is to be again experienced in consciousness. I do not mean that this reality cannot be indirectly incorporated into ordinary memory. This must indeed take place if the path of spiritual investigation is to be a healthy one. But what remains in memory is only an idea (Vorstellung) of this reality, just as what one remembers to-day of an experience of yesterday is only an idea (Vorstellung).Concepts, ideas, can be retained in memory a spiritual reality must be experienced ever anew. By grasping vividly this difference between the cherishing of mere thoughts and a spiritual reality reached by developing the activity of thinking, one comes to experience oneself with this reality outside the physical body. What ordinary thinking must mostly regard as an impossibility commences one experiences oneself outside the existence that is connected with the body. Ordinary thinking, regarding this experience outside the body only from its own point of view, must at first hold this to be an illusion.Assurance of this experience can, indeed, only be won through the experience itself. And it is precisely through this experience that one understands only too well that those whose habits of thought have been formed by Natural Science cannot, at first, but regard such experiences as fantastic imaginings or dreamy reverie, perhaps as a weaving in illusions or hallucinations. Only he can fully understand what is here brought forward who has come to know that the path of true spiritual investigation releases forces in the soul which lie in a direction precisely opposite to those which induce ghoulish soul experiences.What the soul develops on the path of spiritual investigation are forces competent to oppose pathological states or to dissipate these where they tend to occur. No scientific investigation can see through what is visionary of an hallucinatory nature when this tries to get in mans way, as directly as true spiritual science, which can only unfold in a direction opposed to the unhealthy experiences mentioned. In that moment when this experience outside the body becomes a reality for him the spiritual investigator learns to know how ordinary thinking is bound to the physical processes of the body.He comes to see how thoughts acquired in outer experience necessarily arise in such a way that they can be remembered. This rests on the fact that these thoughts do not merely lead a spiritual life in the soul but share their life with the body. Thus the spiritual investigator comes not to reject but to accept what scientific thought must maintain about the dependence of the life of thought on bodily processes. At first the inner experiences described above present themselves as anxious oppression of the soul. They appear to lead out of the domain of ordinary existence but not into a new reality.One knows, indeed, that one is living in a reality one feels th is reality as ones own spiritual being. One has found ones way out of sense reality, but one has only grasped oneself in a purely spiritual form of existence. A feeling of solitariness resembling fear can overtake the soul a loneliness to experience oneself in a world, not merely to possess oneself. Yet another feeling arises. One feels one must lose again the acquired spiritual self-experience, if one cannot confront a spiritual environment. The spiritual state into which one thus enters may be roughly compared to what would be experienced if one had to detention with ones hands n all directions without being able to lay hold of anything. When, however, the path of spiritual investigation is pursued in the right way, the above experiences are, indeed, undergone, but they form only one side of the souls development. The necessary completion is found in other experiences. As certain impulses given to the souls experiences lead one to grasp the will-reality within thinking, so othe r directions imparted to the processes of the soul lead to an experience of hidden forces within the activity of the will. (Here also we can only state what takes place in the inner being of man through such soul experiences.The books mentioned give a detailed description of what the soul must undertake in order to reach the indicated goal). In ordinary life the activity of the will is not perceived in the same way as an outer event. Even what is usually called introspection by no means puts one into the position of regarding ones own willing as one regards an outer event of Nature. To achieve this to be able to confront ones own willing as an observer stands before an outer fact of Nature intensive soul processes, induced voluntarily, are again necessary.If these are induced in the appropriate way there arises something quite different from this view of ones own willing as of an outer fact. In ordinary perception a presentation (Vorstellung) emerges in the life of the soul and is , in a certain sense, an inner image of the outer fact. But in observing ones own willing this accustomed power of forming presentations fades out. One ceases to form presentations of outer things. In place of this a faculty of forming real images a real perception is released from the depths of willing, and breaks through the surface of the wills activity, bringing living spiritual reality with it.At first ones own hidden spiritual entity appears within this spiritual reality. One perceives that one carries a hidden spiritual man within one. This is no thought-picture but a real being real in a higher sense than the outer bodily man. Now this spiritual man does not present himself like an outer being perceptible to the senses. He does not reveal his characteristic qualities outwardly. He reveals himself through his inner nature by developing an inner activity similar to the processes of consciousness in ones own soul.But, unlike the soul dwelling in mans body, this higher being is not turned towards sensible objects but towards spiritual events in the first place towards the events of ones own soul-life as unfolded up till now. One really discovers in oneself a second human being who, as a spiritual being, is a conscious observer of ones ordinary soul-life. However fantastic this description of a spiritual man within the bodily may appear, it is nevertheless a sober description of reality for a soul-life appropriately trained. It is as different from anything visionary or of the nature of an illusion as is day from night.Just as a reality partaking of the nature of will is discovered in the transformed thinking, so a consciousness partaking of the nature of being and weaving in the spiritual is discovered in the will. And these two prove, for fuller experience, to belong together. In a certain sense they are discovered on paths running in opposite directions, but turn out to be a unity. The feeling of anxiety experienced in the weaving of the will-reali ty ceases when this will-reality, born from developed thinking, unifys itself with the higher being above described. Through this union man confronts, for the first time, the complete spiritual world.He encounters, not only himself, but beings and events of the spiritual world lying outside himself. In the world into which man has thus entered, perception is an essentially different process from perception in the world of sense. Real beings and events of the spiritual world arise from out of the higher being revealed through developing the will. Through the interplay of these beings and events with the will-reality resulting from developed thinking, these beings and events are spiritually perceived. What we know as memory in the physical world ceases to have significance for the spiritual world.We see that this soul force uses the physical body as a tool. But another force takes the place of memory in observing the spiritual world. Through this force a past event is not remembered in the form of mental presentations but perceived directly in a fresh experience. It is not like reading a sentence and remembering it later, but like reading and re-reading. The concept of the past acquires a new significance in this domain the past appears to spiritual perception as present, and we recognise that something belongs to a past time by perceiving, not the passage of time, but the relation of one spiritual being or event to another.The path into the spiritual world is thus traversed by laying bare what is contained in thinking and willing. Now feeling cannot be developed in a similar way by inner initiative of soul. Unlike the case of thinking and willing, nothing to take the place of what is experienced within the physical world as feeling can be developed in the spiritual world through transforming an inner force. What corresponds to feeling in the spiritual world arises quite of itself as soon as spiritual perception has been acquired in the described way.This exper ience of feeling, however, bears a different character from that borne by feeling in the physical world. One does not feel in oneself, but in the beings and events which one perceives. One enters into them with ones feeling one feels their inner being, as in physical life one feels ones own being. We might put it in this way as in the physical world one is conscious of experiencing objects and events as material, so in the spiritual world one is conscious of experiencing beings and facts through revelations of feeling which come from without like colours or sounds in the physical world.A soul which has attained to the spiritual experience described knows it is in a world from out of which it can observe its own experiences in the physical word just as physical perception can observe a sensible object. It is united with that spiritual entity which unites itself at birth (or at conception) with the physical body derived from ones ancestors and this spiritual entity persists when th is body is laid aside at death. The hopes of a Plato and an Aristotle for the science of the soul can only be fulfilled through a perception of this entity.Moreover the perception of repeated earth-lives (between which are lives spent in the purely spiritual world) now becomes a fact inasmuch as mans psychic-spiritual kernel, thus discovered, perceives itself and its own weaving and becoming in the spiritual world. It learns to know its own being as the result of earlier earthlives and spiritual forms of existence lying between them. Within its present earth-life it finds a spiritual germ which must unfold in a future earth-life after passing through states between death and a new birth.As the plant germ contains the future plant potentially, so there develops, concealed in man, a psychic-spiritual germ. This reveals itself to spiritual perception through its own essence as the foundation of a future earth-life. It would be incorrect so to interpret the spiritual perception of life between death and a new birth as if such perception meant participating beforehand in the experience of the spiritual world entered at physical death.Such perception does not give a complete, disembodied experience of the spiritual world as experienced after death it is only theknowledgeof the actual experience that is experienced. While still in ones body one can receive all of the disembodied experience between death and a new birth that is offered by the experiences of the soul described above, that is to say, when the will-reality is released from thinking with the help of the consciousness set free from the will.In the spiritual world the feeling element revealing itself from without can first be experienced through entrance into this world. Strange as it may sound, experience in the spiritual world leads one to say the physical world is present to man in the first place as a complex of outer facts, and man acquires knowledge of it after it has confronted him in this form the spiritual world, on the other hand, sends knowledge of itself in advance, and the knowledge it kindles in the soul beforehand is the torch which must illumine the spiritual world if this world is to reveal itself as a fact.It is clear to one who knows this through spiritual perception that this light develops during bodily life on earth in the unconscious depths of the soul, and then, after death, illumines the regions of the spiritual world making them experiences of the human soul. During bodily life on earth one can awaken this knowledge of the state between death and a new birth. This knowledge has an entirely opposite character to that developed for life in the physical world.One perceives through it what the soul will accomplish between death and a new birth, because one has present in spiritual perception the germ of what impels towards this accomplishment. The perception of this germ reveals that a creative connection with the spiritual world commences for the soul after dea th. It unfolds an activity which is directed towards the future earth life as its goal, whereas in physical perception its activity is directed although imitatively and not creatively towards the outer world of sense.Mansgrowth(Werden) as a spiritual being connected with the spiritual world lies in the field of vision of the soul between death and a new birth, as theexistence(Sein) of the sense world lies in the field of view of the bodily man. Active perception of spiritual Becoming (Werden) characterises the conditions between death and a new birth. (It is not the task of this article to give details of these states. Those arouse will find them in my booksTheosophyandOccult Science).In contrast to experience in the body, spiritual experience is something to which we are completely unaccustomed, inasmuch as the idea ofBeingas acquired in the physical world loses all meaning. The spiritual world has nothing of the nature ofBeing. Everything isBecoming. To enter a spiritual enviro nment is to enter an unceasing Becoming. But in contrast to this restless Becoming in our spiritual environment we have the souls perception of itself as stationary consciousness within the never-ceasing effect into which it is placed.The awakened spiritual consciousness must accommodate itself to this reversal of inner experience with regard to the consciousness that lives in the body. It can thereby acquire a real knowledge of experience apart from the body. And only such knowledge can embrace the states between death and a new birth. . .. . In a certain sense all human beings are specialists to-day so far as their souls are concerned. We are struck by this specialised mode of perception when we study the development of Art in humanity.And for this very reason a comprehensive understanding of spiritual life in its totality must again come into existence. True form in Art will arise from this comprehensive understanding of spiritual life . .. . RUDOLF STEINER (FromWays to a New room in Architecture) We lose the human being from our field of vision if we do not fix the eye of the soul upon his entire nature in all its life-manifestations. We should not speak of mans knowledge, but of the complete man manifesting himself in the act of cognition. In cognition, man uses as an instrument his sense-nerve nature.For feeling, he is served by the rhythm living in the breath and the circulation of the blood. When he wills metabolism becomes the physical basis of his existence. But rhythm courses into the physical occurrence within the sense-nerve nature and metabolism is the material holder of the life of thought, even in the most abstract thinking, feeling lives and the waves of will pulsate. * * * * The ancient Oriental entered into his dream-like thinking more from the rhythmic life of feeling than does the man of the present age.The Oriental experienced for this reason more of the rhythmic weaving in his life of thought, while the Westerner experiences more of the logical indications. In wage hike to super-sensible vision, the Oriental Yogi interwove conscious breath with conscious thinking, in this way, he laid hold in his breath upon the continuing rhythm of cosmic occurrence. As he breathed, he experienced the world as Self. Upon the rhythmic waves of conscious breath, thought moved through the entire being of man.He experienced how the Divine-Spiritual causes the spirit-filled breath to stream always into man, and how man thus becomes a living soul. The man of the present age must seek his supersensible knowledge in a different way. He cannot unite his thinking with the breath. Through meditation, he must lift his thinking out of the life of logic to vision. In vision, however, thought weaves in a spirit element or music and picture. It is released from the breath and woven together with the spiritual in the world.The Self is now experienced, not in connection with the breath in the one human being, but in the environing world of s pirit. The Eastern man once experienced the world in himself, and in his spiritual life today he has the echo of this. The Western man stands at the beginning of his experience, and is on the way to find himself in the world. If the Western man should wish to become a Yogi, he would have to become a refined egoist, for Nature has already given him the feeling of the Self. which the Oriental had only in a dream-like way.If the Yogi had sought for himself in the world as the Western man must do, he would have led his dream-like thinking into unconscious sleep, and would have been psychically drowned. * * * * The Eastern man had the spiritual experience as religion, art, and science in complete unity. He made sacrifices to his spiritual-divine Beings. As a gift of grace, there flowed to him from them that which lifted him to the state of a true human being. This was religion. But in the sacrificial ceremony and the sacrificial place there was manifest to him also beauty, through which the Divine-Spiritual lived in art.And out of the beautiful manifestations of the Spirit there flowed science. Toward the West streamed the waves of wisdom that were the beautiful light of the spirit and inspired piety in the artistically inspired man. There religion developed its own being, and only beauty still continued united with wisdom. Heracleitos and Anaxagoras were men wise in the world who thought artistically Aeschylos and Sophocles were artists who moulded the wisdom of the world. Later wisdom was given over to thinking it became knowledge. Art was transferred to its own world.Religion, the source of all, became the heritage of the East art became the monument of the time when the middle region of the earth held sway knowledge became the indepen